Chapters 30-31

  1. Maghrib refers to
    North Africa, Arabic for "the west", since it was the western part of the Islamic world.
  2. The center of Islamic civilization was
    West Asia, the Near East and the Middle East
  3. the Ottoman Empire
    • - was large and wealthy
    • - had its capital at Constantinople, also known as Istabul
    • - it linked most of West Asia and North Africa politically between the early 1500s and the 1800s
  4. The elite slave soldiers in the Ottoman Empire were known as
    Janissaries, after the reforms of Mahmud in 1826, the Janissarys rebeled
  5. Who defeated and then abolished the Janissary Corps
    Mahmud II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire that cost the Ottomans lasn in southeast Europe (Greece, which gain their independece with help from Russia)
  6. Mahmud II brought law and education under state control, thus undermining the influence of the
    ulama, the learned religious leaders
  7. Tanzimat refers to
    reforms and modernization initiatives in the Ottoman Empire in the mid 19th century
  8. The Tanzimat did all of the following
    • - set up secular schools
    • - design a more aquitable tax sctructure
    • - promise equal rights for all men, even non-Muslims
  9. Reshid Pasha
    was an enthusiastic supporter of the Tanzimat reforms
  10. Which leader shut down the Parliament and suspended the constitution in the Ottoman Empire
    Abdulhamid, because he was unwilling to accept the limitations these institutions place on his authority
  11. "Young Turks"
    encouraged industrialization and Nationalism in the late Ottoman Empire
  12. Who forced Abdulhamid to restore the constitution and parliament to the Ottoman Empire?
    the Young Turks
  13. Who was the real power behind the throne of Mehmet V?
    the "Young Turks"
  14. Who transformed Egypt's economy, built a powerful military and started a dynasty that lasted until the 1950's?
    Muhammad Ali, a former soldier in the Ottoman army sent to resist Napoleons invasion of Egypt in 1798-1799
  15. Mamluks were
    Egypt's slave soldiers who had served for centuries as Egypts rulling elite, massacred by Muhammad Ali
  16. How did Muhammad Ali revolutionize Egyptian agriculture?
    He encouraged peasants the growth of "cash crops" like cotton, to sell their crpos for cash to buy goods
  17. which country had long dreamed of building a canal to shorten the East - West trade routes?
  18. The Suez Canal did of the following
    • - cut travel time between Europe and Asia in half
    • - lowered shipping cost
    • - bolster global commerce
  19. Arab Notionalism
    has its roots in the 19th century
  20. The Barbary States were
    Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria and Morocco, four North African Muslim countries
  21. In 1827 Algerias ruler hit the French consul with a fly swatter because
    the French owed Algeria money
  22. After a long and devastating war, france conquered
    Algeria in 1846
  23. Olaudah Equiano was a
    former slave who was kidnapped from West Africa at age 11 and shipped across the Atlantic to the West Indies manage to buy his freedom, wrote his memoirs and publish them in England in 1789, his book sold widely in Europe and America
  24. The first country to outlaw the slave trade was
  25. The ban on the slave trade had all of the following
    • - increasing the market value of slaves
    • - strengthening slavery within Africa
    • - relocating the slave trade from West to East Africa
  26. The Fulani were a pastoral people from ----- Africa's grassland who adopted the religion of Sufism
    West African people adopted the ideas of the Sufism
  27. Usman dan Fodio
    was a Fulani mystic who established the Sokoto Caliphate through a jihad of the sword
  28. British abolitionists and liberated American slaves founded a settlement named Freetown in
    Sierra Leone
  29. In 1828, Zanzibar
    was so wealthy that the sultan of Oman made it his headquarters
  30. The Zulu kingdom
    was the dominant power in the southeastern Africa in the early nineteenth century
  31. The Boers were
    descendants of the Dutch in South Africa
  32. The Boers on the Great Trek compared themselves with
    the Hebrews entering the Promise Land
  33. Boer society was based
    on Catholicism
  34. who established the Orage Free State and the Transvaal?
    the Boers, later called Afrikaners settle in southernmost Africa after the Ducth East India Company founded a station there for Asia-bound ships
  35. Between the mid 1400s and the mid 1800s, Europeans in Africa
    mostly stayed close to the coast/ shorelines
  36. Factors contributing to Eupopean imperialism in Africa icluded
    • - Europe's wealth and advanced technology
    • - racism and nationalism
    • - medical knowledge that helped Europeans survive in Africa
  37. Before 1880, Europeans exerted colonial control over
    less than 10 percent of the African continent
  38. Innovations that facilitated European explotation of Africa in the 19th century included
    the use of quinine (an alkaloid substance derived from cinchona trees) to prevent malaria and repeating rifles
  39. "Doctor Livingston, I presume" was
    reportedly journalist Henry Morton Stanley's greeting upon finding the "lost" explorer
  40. Which European nation conquered the Congo, leading to a scramble for Africa?
  41. Which European country gained control of Egypt?
  42. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885
    laid the ground-rules for Europes empire-grabbing in Africa
  43. The only African states to preserve their independence throughout the colonial period were
    Liberia and Ethiopia
  44. Ethiopian victory at Adowa in 1896
    proved that Africans, armed with modern weapons and inspired by nationalism, could resist European miliraty might
  45. All of the following statements about al-Mahdi are true
    • - he was charismatic, messianic Muslim mystic
    • - lacking modern weapons, his disciples were massacred at Omdurman
    • - his disciples were called Mahdists
  46. Cecil Rhodes
    became one of the world's richest men by controllin the southern African diamond business
  47. African traditional systems
    were generally transformed and sometimes deliberately supressed by European imperialism
  48. African resistance to colonial rule increasingly relied on arguments based on
    raw military might
  49. the Triple Alliance consisted of
    Italy, Germany, and Austria
  50. The Reinsurance Treaty was an alliance between
    Russia and Germany
  51. What were the "twin pillars" of Otto von Bismarcks foreign policy?
    isolation of france, and prevention of war in the Balkans
  52. ---- dismissed Otto von Bismarck im 1890
    William II
  53. The Entente Cordiale of 1904 was a loose allaince between
    Britain and France
  54. Russia in teh early 1900s
    lagged behind the Western powers in industrialization
  55. Who was Russia's leader during the Bloody Sunday massacre
    Nicholas II
  56. When did Bloody Sunday take place?
  57. In the October Manifesto, the Russian tsar promised a constitution and
    an elected parliament
  58. Which of the following nations were part of the Triple Entente?
  59. In 1908 a crisis arose over Austria's decision to annex Bosnia and
  60. Russia defended Serbia in the Bosnian Crisis because
    both were Slavic
  61. The two Moroccan Crisis are both examples of
    Germany pushing its enemies into alliances with eachother, in response to real or perceived German aggression
  62. The "blank check" refers to
    Germany's unconditional support for Austria, a document that would allow Austria to lead Germany and the rest of Europe into war
  63. Factors contributing to the July Crisis of 1914 turning into a war included
    • - The system of interlocking alliances among European powers
    • - Kaiser William II's failure to correctly predict the behavior of Tsar Nicholas II
    • - Austria's impatience with Serbian nationalism
  64. Britian entered WWI after Germany the rights of a neutral
  65. Germany's two-front war strategy involved
    a quick defeat of France before turning to Russia
  66. The war reached a stalemate (deadlock) in
    northeastern France near Marne
  67. One of the defining characteristics of the Great War was
    the extensive use of trenches in permanent defensive installations
  68. The Central powers included
    Bulgaria, Germany, Austria-hungary and Ottoman Turkey
  69. The Allied Powers included
    United States, Russia, France, Britain and its ally Japan
  70. In 1915, Winston Churchill attempted to break the stalemate in the southeast with
    an invansion of the Gallipoli peninsula
  71. Who led defensive forces at Gallipoli?
    Mustafa Kemal
  72. Which nation switched sides because of territorial promises?
  73. Which belligerent nation broughtsubmarines onto naval front in WWI?
  74. What was the Lusitania?
    a British passager liner
  75. France's will to resist was symbolized in the city of
  76. The largest one day loss in British military history occurred in the eight hours of the Battle of
    the Somme
  77. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 obligated Japan to come to ----- aid if its possessions were attacked by a third party
  78. Germany's African colonies were valuable
    chiefly as staging areas for attacks on British and French possessions and as communication centers
  79. India expected autonomy from Britain because of
    India's role in WWI
  80. Which European nation's people suffered the least in WWI?
  81. German measures to cope with wartime shortages included all of the following
    • - soap was rationed at one small bar per month
    • - bread was made from one part flour and two parts sawdust
    • - coal was used for heating and other purposes was rationed
  82. Who was the U.S. president during WWI?
    Woodrow Wilson
  83. The Zimmermann Note
    offered to return southwestern American territory to Mexico, if Mexico would ally with Germany in defeating the United States
  84. The United States
    entered WWI on the side of the Allies in 1917
  85. Who was France's prime minister during WWI?
    Georges Clemenceau
  86. The following were a problem for Russia during WWI?
    • - not enough rifles
    • - low food supply
    • - lack of competent military leadership
  87. The Siberian peasant who had great influence on the Russian tsarina was
  88. On International Women's Day, March 8, 1917 in this city, female workers stared a mass demostration
    Petrograd (Russias capital)
  89. Russia's 1917 Revolution
    toppled the tsar
  90. ------- took power when Tsar Nicholas II abdicated
    The Provisional government
  91. All of the following statements are true about V.I. Lenin
    • - His name was Vladimir Ilich Ulianov
    • - He was leader of the Bolsheviks
    • - He fled from Russia to Findland in the Summer of 1917
  92. "Peace, Land and Bread", was the slogan adopted by
    VI Lenin
  93. The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia
    in November 1917 when they took control of the Congress of Soviets and Red Guards stormed the Provisional Goverment headquarters
  94. Which country withdrew from WWI after an internal rebellion and civil war?
  95. The Treaty of brest-Litovsk
    gave Russian territories to Germany
  96. the overall commander of Allied forces in 1918 was
    Ferdinand Foch a French General
  97. In 1918, the Germans
    were particularly susceptible to the flu pandemic
  98. Which etnic group was targeted for persecution in the Ottoman Empire?
  99. Colonel ------ was known as Lawrence of Arabia
    T.E. Lawrence, British officer who offer tactical advice to the Arabs in the war against the Ottoman Empire
  100. The Great War ended
    at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918
Card Set
Chapters 30-31
Quiz 6 Questions