Theory Exam 3 Vocab

  1. Adnexa
    • accessory structures and ogans of the eye
    • eg. eye brows, skin around orbit
  2. Orbit
    bony orifice in which the eye ball sits
  3. Hordeolum
    staph infection of lid glands, with pus, pain and redness
  4. Chalazion
    • sterile clooging of li glands
    • no pain, pus, redness
  5. Ptosis
    • dropping of lid.
    • congenital okay :)
  6. Lagophthalmus
    eye lids don't completely close
  7. Entropion
    in-turning of lids
  8. Ectropion
    out-turning of lids
  9. Blepharochalasis
    Dropping of skin of the eyelids
  10. Xanthelasma
    • lipid deposit in the skin of the eyelids
    • usually symmetrical
    • high cholesterol
    • if kids have this, send them to get blood work done
  11. Blepharitis
    • inflammation of the eyelid margins and lashes
    • kids and infants more often if puncta is no open
  12. Madarosis
    loss of lashes
  13. Trichiasis
    in-turning of lashes
  14. Meibomianitis
    inflammation of the Meibomian glands at the base of the lash
  15. Dacryocystitis
    infection of the lacrimal sac with swelling and redness near the nose
  16. Dacryoadenitis
    inflammation of the lacrimal gland, with swelling and pain in the area of the lacrimal gland
  17. Palpebral
    conjunctiva that lines the lids
  18. Bulbar
    conjunctiva that overlies the sclera (common red eye)
  19. Conjunctivitis
    • inflammation of the conjunctiva.
    • bacterial, allergy, viral
  20. Injection
    the amount of redness or vascuarlization
  21. Follicle
    white to yellow, translucent avascular elevation of the conjunctiva
  22. Papilla
    vascularized clear conjunctiva elevation, often giving a velvety appearance to the affected area
  23. Pinguecula
    a hyperplasia of the conjunctival tissue, usually in response to environmental irritations on bulbar
  24. Pterygium
    a degeneration of the bulbar conjunctiva, involving the cornea
  25. Sub-conjunctival hemorrhage
    • a hemorrhage that causes great alarm in patients by the overall appearance of the conjunctiva
    • old people, constipated
    • blood stays behind the conjunctiva the whole sclera is bloody looking
    • put cold on it, then hot
  26. Chemosis
    swlling of the conjunctiva
  27. Episcleritis
    • an inflammation of the outer layer of the sclera, with pain in the red area
    • people with artheritis are prone to this
    • localized in 1 area
    • red moves = vasoconstrictor will help shrink it
  28. Scleritis
    • an inflammation of the entire sclera, with the entire scelra being red
    • red meat look
    • red don't move = vasocontristor won't help shrink
  29. Corneal scar
    when a foreign object has penetrated the first five layers of the cornea, into the stroma
  30. Arcus seniles
    • a cholesterol deposit in the periphery of the cornea
    • blood kinda bad
    • infultrate = WBCs that get into the stroma
  31. Keratitis
    inflammation of the cornea
  32. TBUT
    • tear break up time
    • fluorescein instilled into the lower cul-de-sac. patient then blinks and keeps lid open, with doctor counting the seconds until the tear film breaks up. normal is greater than 10sec
  33. Anterior angle
    • where the aqueous drains
    • size is graded from wide open (4+) to closed (0+)
  34. Anterior chamber
    should have no debris or white cells in the aqueous humor that circulates through this chamber
  35. Cells
    • white blood cells in the aqueous (means active inflammation!)
    • if you have these, it's kinda achy not too bad ache
  36. Flare
    smoky-appearing precipirate of protein leaked from inflamed blood vessels
  37. Corectopia
    • misplaced pupil
    • not centered
  38. Aniridia
    • absence of iris
    • use consmetic contact, vision increases
    • light sensitivity is a problem
  39. Iritis
    • inflammation of iris
    • shine light, "ouch!"
  40. 2 places in eye cause pain
    • ciliary body
    • cornea
  41. Uvea
    • Iris
    • ciliary body
    • choroid
  42. Cataract
    • an opactiy of the crystalline lens
    • nuclear, cortical, sub-capsular (used steriod too much) and posterior polar
  43. Aphakia
    no crystalline lens
  44. pseudophakia
    artificial lens implant
  45. Vitreal floaters
    • remnants of hyaloid artery
    • suppose to dissapear when you grow up but didn't
  46. Cup-to-disc
    • one of the most diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of glaucoma. this is recorded as a percentage of the disc that the cup occupies.
    • the C/D ratio should be relatively the same between the 2 eyes, within +/- 0.1. A difference of 0.2 between the two eyes is highly suspected of problems.
    • record vertical and horizontal
    • glaucoma C/D increases
  47. Margins
    should be no elecation of the margins
  48. Papilledema
    pathological elevations of the disc margins
  49. Optic Nerve Atrophy
    • when the rim tissue has a white color and is dying
    • +APD
  50. Spontaneous Venous Pulsation
    • the observable compression of the central retinal vein at the disc
    • diastalic pressure
    • systolic pressure
    • eye pressure
  51. Ateriole/Venule ratio
    • the width of the arterioles compared to the width of the venules.
    • normal should be about 2/3
    • observed at least one disc diameter from the disc
  52. Arteriole light reflex
    • the width of the light reflection of the arterioles
    • normal should be about 1/3
    • observed at least one disc diamter from the disc
    • if it's wider, then that means it's clogged up
  53. Vessel crossing
    • passage of vessels one over the other
    • normal should be no obstruction
  54. constriction of vessel crossing
    impeded blood flow at the vessel crossing
  55. Foveal Light Reflex
    the light reflection of the fovea in the macula
  56. Color of Macula
    • should be slightly darker than the rest of the reina
    • free from hemorrhages and pigment
  57. Macular degeneration
    degeneration of the macula causing a permanent loss of visual acuity
  58. Nevus
    an area of hyperpigmentation in the background
  59. Hemorrhage
    a leakage of blood ouside the vessel
  60. Cotton-wool
    microinfarcts of the nerve fibers, with swelling of the nerve fibers from occlusion of small arterioles; white, fluffy
  61. Exudates
    • Fluid leakage that has been reabsorbed
    • leaving a yellow and flat appearance
  62. Lesion
    any break in the retinal layer from trauma, disease, or anatomical variations
  63. 1st degree fusion
    • simultaneous perception and superimposition
    • possibly diplopia
    • the person has to at least have biocularity
    • sees lion and cage separate
  64. 2nd degree fusion
    • flat fusion
    • seeing with both eye but no depth perception
    • see lion fuse over with cage
  65. 3rd degree fusion
    • depth perception or steropsis
    • highest leel of binocular vision
    • sees lion behind the cage
  66. monocular dept perception cues
    • with only one eye, tips of where things are located relative to the person
    • relative size
    • light shade
    • overlap
  67. binocular dept perception cues
    • with both eyes, tips for where things are located relative to the person
    • disparity between the 2 images of both eyes
    • each eye being stimulated in a corresponding point of fovea
  68. Global seteropsis
    • the disparity of a large part of the visual field is evaluated, with no monocular cues
    • more sensitive, have to be binocular with bifoveal fixation
    • shapes test this aspects of stereopsis
  69. Local Stereopsis
    • the presence of a smaller more localized object aided by monocular cues
    • local is less sensitive, can be monocular
    • wirt circles test this aspect
  70. Stereoacuity
    • the minimum amount of disparity that allows the patient to perceive depth perception
    • usually recorded in seconds of arc discernable
  71. Factors affecting steropsis
    • binocularity - have to address the causal etiology of suppression to have a positive prognosis of developing steropsis
    • refractive erroe - espcially with large anisometropia
    • strabismus - with and without suppression
    • age - stereopsis is a learned trait
  72. Photopigments in cones
    • Erythrolabe - red pigment
    • Chlrolabe - green pigment
    • Cyanolabe - blue pigment
  73. Deuteranopia
    see no green
  74. Protanopia
    sees no red
  75. Tritanopia
    sees no blue
  76. Inherited color defect
    • red-green
    • usually affect both eyes
  77. Acquired color defect
    • blue-yellow defect
    • result of disease
    • can be monocular
  78. Red cap test
    a less bright red can indicate some form of optic nerve disease
  79. when to do amsler grid testing
    • older patients who are at high risk for macular degeneration
    • patients who are high risk for new blood vessel growth in the macula eg diabetics, people with histoplasmosis
    • patient who taking high rish medication eg. chloroquine
    • patients with unexplained vision loss
Card Set
Theory Exam 3 Vocab
external eye evaluation