Sociology Exam 2

  1. socialization
    the life long social experiences by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
  2. Personality
  3. Id
    The only component of personality that is present from birth. the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality
  4. Ego
    • The component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality.
    • Functions in both the conscious preconscious and unconscious mind.
  5. Super ego
    • The last component of personality to develop.
    • Aspect of personality sense of right and wrong.
    • Emerges around age of 5.
    • Provides guidelines to making judgements.
  6. How many phases/elements are in personality
  7. Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    • how people think and understand
  8. Sensorimotor Stage (Development Theories)
    birth-2 years senses (touch, taste, feel look listening)
  9. Preoperation stage
    • 2-6 years.
    • first use language and other symbols
  10. Concrete stage
    • 7-11 years.
    • first see casual connections in their surrounding
  11. Formal operational stage
    • 12 years and up
    • individual start to think critically
  12. Freuds Model of Personality
    • 3 phases
    • Id, Ego, Superego
  13. Sociobiology
    • integrates theories and research from biology and sociobiology in an effort to better understand human behavior
    • genetic traits
    • the environment
    • What we learn in interaction with others
  14. Agents of socialization
    • Family
    • School
    • Peer group
    • Mass Media
    • Religion
  15. Status
    • A position in a social hierarchy that carries a particular set of expectations (who you are as a person)
    • ex. brother, student, father
  16. Difference btw. status and role
    • status is the position
    • role is the responsibilities of that position
  17. Know the difference btw crime and deviance
    • crime is the violation of a societys formally enacted criminal LAW (texting while driving)
    • deviance is the violations of a societys social norms (wearing sandals to church) (Recognized violations of cultural norms)
  18. Know the debate of nature VS. nuture
    • nature is human behavior is instintive (we were born that way)
    • nurture- behavior is learned (we learn by our environment and we become that)
  19. Erickson's stage of Development
    • 1. Infancy, birth-18 months (Trust vs. mistrust)
    • 2. Early childhood, 2-3 years (autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
    • 3. Preschool, 3-5 years (initiative vs. guilt)
    • 4. school age, 6-11 years (industry vs. inferiority)
    • 5. adolescence, 12-18 years (identity vs. role confusion)
    • 6. young adulthood, 19-40 years (intimacy vs. isolation)
    • 7. Middle adulthood, 40-65 years (generativity vs. stagnation)
    • 8. maturity, 65- death (ego integrity vs. despair)
  20. Social isolation
    the seperation/ dissociation from social interaction from others
  21. Type of Status's
    • Ascribed status, inborn
    • achieved status, through effort
    • master status, affects other statuses
    • status inconsistency, occupies 2 or more that society deems contradictory
  22. Type of Roles
    • role conflict, 2 or more roles w/ contradictory expectations
    • role strain, tension
    • role exit, leaving a role that we will no longer occupy
  23. Characteristics of Deviance
    • not necessarily limited to behavior
    • not limited to things that are criminal acts
    • changes over time
    • changes from place to place
    • positive change in society
  24. social class (250,000 + per year)
    a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealthy, property, power and prestige
  25. socioeconomic status (SES) (7,500 per year)
    A measure of an individual's place within a social class system; often used interchangeably with "class"
  26. social control
    attempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behavior
  27. Symbolic interaction anyalysis (explains how people define deviance in everyday situations
    • LABELING THEORY- idea that deviance and comformity results not so much from what people do as how others respond to those actions (its how people define the behavior)
    • Medicalization of Deviance- the transformations of moral and legal deviance into medical conditions
  28. White collar crime
    crime committed by people in a high social position in the course of their occupation
  29. Corporate Crime
    is the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
  30. Organized crime
    business supplying illegal foods or services
  31. Type of Crimes
    • Crimes against the person (violent crimes)- crimes that involve direct violence or threat of violence
    • Crimes against property (property crimes)- crimes that involve theft or property belonging to other
  32. Principles of Deviance
    • Deviance exists in relation to cultural norms (structural functional pt of view)
    • People become different as others define them that way (symbolic interaction pt of view)
    • social power influences what we consider deviant (social conflict pt. of view)
  33. Social Stratification
    the division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy
  34. Social Mobility
    change in position within the social heiracrchy
  35. Horizontal mobility
    move to another position within same level
  36. Caste system (closed system)
    a form of social stratification in which status is determined by ones family history and background and cannot be changed
  37. Class system (open systems)
    a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power and prestige
  38. Difference btw. income and wealth
    • income- earning from work or investments
    • wealth- the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts (can include stock, bonds, real estate)
  39. Characteristics of stratification
    • trait of society
    • carries from one generation to generation
    • it is universal but variable
    • involves not just inequality but the belief as well
  40. Characteristics of the US stratification
    • income
    • wealth
    • power- wealth is power
    • occupational prestige
    • schooling
    • ancestry- what family we are born into and family history
    • race and ethnicity
    • gender
  41. Social conflict
    links deviance to social inequality- who or what is labeled "deviant" depends on which categories of people hold power in society
  42. Symbolic interaction analysis
    explains how people define deviance in everyday situations
  43. Functions of deviance (structual-functional)
    • deviance affirms cultural values and norms
    • responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries (what is right and wrong)
    • responding to deviance brings people together (people joined for a common cause)
    • deviance encourages social change/ change in policy
Card Set
Sociology Exam 2