1. Name three metabolic byproducts that are excreted via the urinary system.
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • Uric acid
  2. What is the byproduct of amino acid metabolism?
  3. What is the byproduct of the breakdown of nucleotides?
    Uric acid
  4. What is the byproduct of the breakdown of creatine phosphate? It serves as a clinical marker for kidney function.
  5. What is formed when ammonia from the liver combines with carbon dioxide?
  6. What is caused by the buildup of uric acid in joints?
  7. What are 3 important functions of the urinary system?
    • Excretion of metabolic wastes
    • Maintenance of water salt balance (homeostasis)
    • Secretion of hormones
  8. T or F? Salts prevent osmosis into the blood.
    F. Salts cause osmosis into the blood.
  9. T or F? The more water in the blood, the higher the blood pressure.
  10. What organ plays a role in blood pressure regulation through water and salt regulation?
  11. To maintain the water salt balance, there is an excretion of what ions? And reabsorption of what?
    • Hydrogen
    • Bicarbonate
  12. What is normal urine pH?
    About 6, ranges from 4.5 to 8
  13. The kidneys are involved in the secretion of these two hormones.
    • Renin
    • Erythropoetin
  14. What hormone is released from the adrenals following the secretion of renin?
  15. Erythropoetin stimulates red blood cell production and activates what vitamin?
    D (for calcium absorption)
  16. The release of aldosterone from the adrenals leads to the reabsorption of what ions?
  17. Where are the kidneys located?
    Lumbar region behind the peritoneum
  18. Where are the renal artery and vein located?
    Hilus or hilum
  19. What is the path of the urinary system once urine is produced in the kidneys?
    • Transported through the ureters,
    • Stored in the urinary bladder,
    • Passed through the urethra.
  20. What urinary organ conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder?
  21. What are the three layers of the ureters wall?
    • Mucosa
    • Smooth muscle
    • Outer connective tissue
  22. How is urine conveyed by the ureters?
  23. What urinary organ stores urine?
    Urinary bladder
  24. The wall of the urinary bladder is made up of this unique type of muscle.
  25. What three openings are found in the trigone region?
    • 2 orifice of ureter
    • Urethra
  26. What layers are responsible for the expandability of the urinary bladder?
    • Middle layer of circular
    • Layers of longitudinal muscle
  27. What type of cells line the urinary bladder?
    Transitional epithelium
  28. T or F? The bladder neck contains 2 sphincters, the internal and external.
  29. T or F? The internal sphincter is involuntary and made of smooth muscle.
  30. What external sphincter is made of what type of muscle?
  31. What is the length of the male urethra? The female urethra?
    • 8 in
    • 1.5 in
  32. The male urethra is surrounded by what gland?
  33. Stretch receptors in the wall of the bladder send impulses when the bladder fills to how many ml?
    250 ml
  34. When the bladder contracts, what occurs?
    Micturition or urination
  35. What is the functional unit of the kidneys?
  36. How many nephrons are found in the kidney?
    Appx. 1 million
  37. A nephron is composed of a system of what?
  38. What are the specialized capillaries of a nephron?
  39. What is the flow of blood from the renal artery to the renal vein?
    • Renal artery
    • Segmental artery
    • Interlobar artery
    • Arcuate artery
    • Cortical radiate artery
    • Afferent arteriole into glomerulus, efferent out
    • Peritubular capillaries
    • Cortical radiate vein
    • Arcuate vein
    • Interlobar vein
    • Renal vein (to inf. vena cava)
  40. The kidneys use what percent of the total cardiac output each minute?
  41. How many segmental arteries branch from the renal artery?
  42. Each segmental artery branches to form these arteries.
  43. At which point do interlobar arteries branch into arcuate arteries?
    At the medulla cortex junction
  44. What arteries arch over the medullary pyramids?
    Arcuate arteries
  45. What arteries radiate outward from arcuate arteries to supply the cortical tissue?
    Cortical radiate arteries
  46. T or F? About 75 percent of the blood entering the kidney perfuses the renal cortex.
    False. More than 90 percent.
  47. Is most of the urine collected in the cortical or medullary region of the kidney?
  48. Where is urine dumped before travelling down the ureter?
    Renal pelvis
  49. What is the variable network of autonomic nerve fibers and ganglia that supplies the kidneys?
    Renal plexus
  50. The renal plexus is largely supplied by the sympathetic fibers of which nerves?
    Thoracic and lumbar splanchic nerves which run along the renal artery.
  51. Sympathetic vasomotor fibers regulate renal blood flow by adjusting what?
    Diameter of renal arterioles
  52. The urine forming role of the nephrons is controlled by sympathetic or parasympathetic vasomotor fibers?
  53. What is the cuplike structure of a nephron?
    Bowman�s capsule, glomerular capsule, or glomerulus
  54. What can be found on the inner layer of Bowman�s capsule?
  55. Podocytes enable a glomerulus to do what?
    Cling to glomerular capillaries
  56. Once waste material is absorbed in the glomerulus, where does it travel?
    Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
  57. What is the cell structure of the epithelium that lines the PCT?
    Cuboidal with microvilli
  58. The convolutions of the PCT increase this for absorption.
    Surface area
  59. This U shaped tube can be found in 20 percent of nephrons.
    Loop of Henle
  60. The loop of Henle is composed of what type of epithelium?
    Simple squamous
  61. The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) differs from the PCT in its lack of what?
  62. T or F? DCTs of several nephrons enter one collecting duct.
  63. What parts of a nephron lie in the renal medulla?
    Long loops of Henle
  64. These are enlarged, smooth muscle cells that have prominent secretory granules that contain renin, and are found in the arteriole wall.
    Granular cells or juxtaglomerular cells
  65. Granular cells are this type of receptors that sense the blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.
  66. The macula densa, or tightly packed cells, are chemoreceptors that respond to the changes in the content of what?
  67. What 2 cell populations of the juxtaglomerular apparatus play important roles in regulating the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure?
    Granular and macula densa
  68. Nephrons are found in collections in the kidney known as what?
  69. What pigment in urine is a byproduct of the destruction of hemoglobin?
  70. How much urine is voided daily?
    1500 ml
  71. Cloudy urine may be an indication of what?
  72. Why does urine develop an ammonia odor if allowed to stand?
    Bacteria metabolizes the urea
  73. How many L of fluid is processed by the kidney per day?
    180 L
  74. Of the 180 L of fluid processed by the kidneys, how many L leave the body as urine?
    1.5 L
  75. What are the 3 major processes in urine formation and the adjustment of blood composition?
    • Glomerular filtration by the glomeruli
    • Tubular reabsorption
    • Tubular secretion in the renal tubules
  76. What process filters water, nitrogenous wastes, and salts (ions) during urine formation?
    Glomerular filtration
  77. What 4 substances are reabsorbed by nephrons (glomerular filtration)?
    • Water (99 percent reabsorption)
    • Sodium (99.5)
    • Glucose (100)
    • Urea (44)
  78. What is composed of the same substances as blood plasma but lack the cells and large plasma proteins?
    Glomerular filtrate
  79. 80 percent of filtrate (most water, nutrients, and required salts) is absorbed in the PCT through which process?
    Tubular reabsorption
  80. How is sodium reabsorbed during tubular reabsorption? Chloride? Water?
    • Active transport
    • Passive transport
    • Osmosis
  81. T or F? Urine contains filtered substances that have not been reabsorbed and substances that have been actively secreted.
  82. Name 3 things that can affect the regulatory functions of the kidneys.
    • Alcohol
    • Caffeine
    • Diuretics
  83. Alcohol inhibits the antidiuretic hormone secreted by which glands?
    Posterior pituitary
  84. This substance increases glomerular filtration rate and decreases tubular reabsorption of sodium.
  85. This substance increases the flow of urine and many inhibit active transport of sodium at loop of Henle or DCT.
  86. Kidneys reabsorb bicarbonate ions and excrete hydrogen ions, helping regulate what?
    pH homeostasis
  87. What is the only organ that can remove acids and bases?
  88. What is an inflammation of the urethra?
  89. What is an inflammation of the bladder?
  90. What is an infection of the kidneys?
  91. What are 4 common causes of kidney stones?
    • UTI
    • Enlarged prostate
    • pH imbalance
    • Too much calcium in diet
  92. What are 2 signs of kidney disease?
    • Albumin in urine
    • Uremia
  93. T or F? Women are three times more likely to develop bladder cancer than men and accounts for 2 percent of all cancer deaths.
    False. Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer.
  94. Name 3 things that have been linked to the development of bladder cancer.
    • Smoking
    • Exposure to industrial chemicals
    • Arsenic in drinking water
  95. What is a common warning sign of bladder cancer?
    Blood in the urine
  96. Diabetes insipidus is characterized by the excretion of large amounts of concentrated or diluted urine?
  97. Diabetes insipidus relates to which hormone or hormone receptors?
  98. Acute glomerulonephritis, inflammation of glomeruli, leads to an increase or decrease or filtration membrane permeability?
  99. Glomerular damage is a result of the mounting of immune responses against what?
    One�s own kidney tissue
  100. GN causes osmotic pressure of blood to drop, fluid seeps from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces, causing body wide what?
  101. If permanent glomerular damage occurs, chronic GN ultimately results in what?
    Renal failure
  102. Blood is cleansed, pH is adjusted, and water and salt balance is maintained through this.
  103. This involves selective permeability and the diffusion of dissolved molecules through a membrane.
  104. What is the dialysis membrane in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis?
  105. What is the success rate of a kidney transplanted from a relative?
    97 percent
Card Set
Urinary AP II