Classical Midterm

  1. The Enlightenment
    Outlook that stressed the power of humanity, through the application of reason, to understand and improve its condition, and the power of the individual, granted sufficient liberty, to use reason in pursuit self-fulfillment.

    Rousseau: "man was born free" "natural law"
  2. Empfindsamkeit
    German for "sensibility" used by some music historians to identify an aesthetic attitude prevalent in the mid 18th cent and reflected in much music of that time.

    Focuses on detail and avoids thick textures and grandiose gestures.
  3. Empfindsam Style

    Pleases the public
  4. Galant Style
    "amiable" or "pleasant"

    Idea that others must come first.

    Needs of the audience come before the needs of the composer.
  5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    coined phrase "Natural Law"
  6. La serva padrona
  7. Opera Seria
    Became an international genre which everyone country embraced except France.

    • "Serious Opera"
    • Musical Characteristics included:
    • *strict division between recitative and aria
    • *an emphasis on virtuoso singing, particulary in da capo arias
    • *use of castrati
    • *librettos drawn from ancient history or mythology
  8. Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782)
  9. Da Capo Aria
    ABA form

    • Opera consisting of 3 sections.
    • A section, constrasting B section, and a return of the A section.

    In performance singers were expected to embellish and elaborate the notated music in the return of section A.
  10. Opera Reform
    Challenged Opera Seria

    New take on Opera
  11. Christoph Willibald Gluck
    Challenged Opera Seria. Wanted a fusion of the best of French, German and Italian Opera.

    • *got rid of Da Capo Aria
    • *borrowed seriousness from France & the importance of the orchestra
    • * dancing MUST be a part of the story
    • *incorporated choruses
    • *orchestra much more integral
  12. Raniero Calzabigi
  13. Orfeo ed Euridice
  14. Bartolomeo Cristofori
  15. Heinrich Cristoph Koch
    established Sonata Form (2 part form)

    • Binary- 1 period (tonic), 2 period (dominant)
    • Ternary- (exposition-development-recapitulation)
  16. Johann Stamitz
    violinist and composer of symphonies
  17. Mannheim
    place to help foster the international success of symphony orchestras
  18. Charles Burney
    observed that fingerings and bowings were uniform with the Mannheim orchestra
  19. Sonata Form
    tells a story

    • musical structure found in instrumental works
    • (Expo-dev-recap)
  20. Domenico Scarlatti
    • wrote 555 sonatas
    • worked for Princess of Portugal
  21. CPE Bach
    keyboard specialist

    worked for Frederick the Great, the King of Prussia
  22. Frederick the Great
    King of Prussia, patron of CPE Bach
  23. Giovanni Sammartini
    • wrote symphonies not meant to be played before Operas.
    • supported the Sinfonia as a public concert/forum.

    • *sinfonia- fast-slow-fast
    • Hammer strokes-loud chords in the opening.
  24. Johann Christian Bach
    • youngest son of JS Bach
    • very influential on young Mozart
    • influential on writing first piano concertos
    • based on Galant style
  25. Count Von Morzin
    • Joseph Hadyn wrote 5 sym's for him
    • haydn found 1st steady work as a composer
  26. Maria Anna Keller
    • Joseph Hadyn's wife
    • was in love with her sister

    "Like water for chocolate" storyline

    Sister was going into clergy
  27. Paul Anton Esterhazy
    • Convinced count Morzin to release Haydn so Hadyn could work for him.
    • Haydn wrote Morning, Noon, and Evening symp's for him.

    patron of Haydn for 2 years
  28. Nicholas Esterhazy
    patron of Haydn

    Major music enthusiast


    Haydn wrote over 100 pieces for the baryton
  29. Esterhaza
    Estate that Nicholas built

    numberous music rooms, one for public performance and one for Nicholas. modeled after Versailles.
  30. Baryton
    string instrument
  31. Leopold Mozart
    Father of W.A Mozart

    Kleinmeister Composer (overshadowed by his contemporray)

    Archbishop of Salzburg
  32. Subscription Concerts
    1/2 paid for by noblemen, rest paid by concert goers

    Mozart performed these
  33. Lorenzo Da Ponte
    Italian poet and librettist

    wrote libretto for 28 operas

    Marriage of Figaro is the most famous
  34. French Revolution
    French citizens led by Napoleon Bonaparte, were fed up with the extravagant lifestyle of King Louis XV and Marie Antoinette.

    Revolutionaries killed royal family around 1792.
  35. Napoleon Bonaparte
    savior of French Revolution.

    Artillery officer who overthrew Italy and German royalty.

    Exporter of Revolutionary ideals
  36. The Industrial Revolution
    invention of steam engine,

    Impact the Industrial Revolution had on music:

    • Manufatoring:
    • *more sturdy pianos (made with reinforced steel) made in factories
    • *more leisure time because machines were more efficient meant more time for concerts
  37. Maximilian Franz, elector of Cologne
  38. Prince Karl von Lichnowsky
    Patron of Beethoven
  39. The Heiligenstadt Testament
    letter Beethoven wrote to his brothers where he says that he wants to commit suicide because he was going deaf, however stated that his "art" would not allow him to die.

    "art as a savior"
  40. Prince Franz Joseph con Lobkowitz
  41. Fidelio
    Rescue Opera

    • Included spoken dialogue vs recitative
    • Plot: set in the Netherlands
    • Leonora must recuse her husband from jail to save society.

    Cultivated revolutionary style in his music.
  42. Rescue Opera
    Opera with a plot of rescuing a heroic figure
  43. Count Metternich
    architect of European council?

    • led to a peaceful Europe.
    • anti-democratic values.
    • Spied on Beethoven (he was seen as a dangerous politcal figure)
Card Set
Classical Midterm
Grad History Review