Video Production

  1. Orange Gels CTO's
    Daylight to Tungston
  2. Blue Gels CTB
    Tungsten to Daylight
  3. Realist Lighting
    Creates the illusions that lighting is coming from actual light sources in the setting or location-Realistic Impact
  4. Modernist Lighting
    Little or no real life referent-emotional impact
  5. Directional Light Hard Light
    Precise beam that causes harsh shadows
  6. Diffused light (soft light)
    causes more general illumination, diffused light spreads out easy and its difficult to control. Results in soft or no shadows.
  7. Light Intensity
    • How much light falls onto an object
    • Can be read by a light meter
  8. Light Meter
    • Reads Foot candle (fc) 1 candlepower of light (called a lumen)
    • that falls on 1 square foot area located 1 foot away from the light source

    European equivalent is the lux- one luman of light on a surface of 1 square meter that is 1 meter away from the light source
  9. Baselight
    Refers to the general illumination or the overall light intensity

    • Measured by pointing light meter from the illuminated object or a scene toward the camera
    • overall light intensity
  10. Gain
    • If insufficient light even at maximum aperture (lowest f stop) you need to activate gain circuits of the camera
    • -consumer recorders do this automatically
    • -Gain will boost the weak video signal electronically if too much will produce color specks
  11. Incident Light
    What inserts the lense or what comes from a specific instrument

    Book def: light that strikes the object directly from its source. To measure incident light, point the light meter at the camera lens or into the lighting measurements
  12. Reflected Light
    • Bouncing off the lighted object
    • Meter reading gives an average of all the light being reflected from a subject (or more so the whole scene)

    Book def: light that is bounced off the illuminated object. To measure reflective light, point the light meter close to the object from the direction of the camera
  13. Contrast Ratios
    • Measure the difference btw bright and dark things/one will blackout
    • -Video Cameras record contrast ratio 30:1
    • -Film can go 100:1
  14. Video camera CCD-luminance levels
    OIRE-Black ------ 100IRE=overexposed
  15. Zebra stripes
    stripes can be set to appear around 95% IRE (or other levels) so the DP knows to use a higher f stop
  16. To decrease light you can?
    • -Move lighting instrument away from the subject
    • -Closing down the Iris
    • -Adding diffusion
  17. Trouble with overexposure is typically the result of overly high contrast ratios
    Overexpose=overly high contrast ratios
  18. Sufficient Illumination
    For colors, and objects
  19. Gain Switch
    Allows camera to shoot in lower light
  20. Attached Shadows
    • Fixed to the object surface/shape and texture helps
    • Cannot be seen separate from the object
    • Attached shadows define shape, texture (without them things look smoother)
  21. Cast Shadow
    • produced by an object and thrown onto a surface
    • can be seen independent of the object causing them
    • Ex: telephone pole
  22. Fall off
    • brightness contrast between light and shadows sides of an object
    • Indicates the degree of change from light to shadow-specifically the speed which light areas turn into shady areas
  23. Fast Fall off
    Hard directional light
  24. Slow fall off
    very gradual change from light area to shadow
  25. No fall off
    Means there is no contrast btw light and dark; all surfaces are lit evenly
  26. Special purpose spotlights and floodlights
    • Ellipsoidal spotlight-used for special effects. sharp, high intensity beam
    • Strip, or cyc, light-illuminate cycloramas (the seamless background curtain that stretches along studio or stage walls
    • Small EFP floodlight-
  27. Types of Flood lights
    • Flood lights have no lens and use large, relatively low powered lamps-highly diffused non directional
    • -Scoop-scooplike reflector, old-faishoned useful
    • -Softlight-long tubelike lamps whose light bounces off with a curved, light-diffusing reflector
    • -Flourescent Bank-row of flourescent tubes (early days of television)
    • -Portable Floodlights- produce general nondirectional illumination and cause slow falloff
  28. Beam Control of a frensel spotlight
    • To flood (spread) the beam put the lamp toward the lens
    • To spot (focus) the beam put the lamp reflector away from the lens
  29. Color
    • 3 primary light colors RGB Addictive primary colors
    • Bluish color temp higher the color temp higher the Kelvin (k)
    • Indoor lighting is more reddish
  30. Mixing Addictive Primaries
    By mixing red green blue all other colors can be achieved
  31. Color Video Image
    CRT cathode ray tube- color television receiver has three electron guns in the neck of the puncture tube that shot their beams at myriad red green blue dots or rectangles on the inside of the tv screen
  32. Color Temp
    • Measured in Kelvin degrees
    • Measures the relative reddishness or bluishness of white light
    • Red white light-has a low color temp
    • Blue white light has a high color temp \
  33. White Balancing
    White light is composed of equal amounts of all colors in the visible spectrum but the light sources with different color temp emit different amounts of color wave length (red, green, blue)
  34. White balancing Channels
    • If shot has to much blue reduce blue
    • If shot has to much red reduce red
    • You should white balance again every time you change lights, gels, or location
  35. Sunlight has a relatively high color temp and emits bluish light
    5600 degrees Kelvin
  36. Spotlights
    • directional
    • more or less defined beam
    • illuminates a specific area
    • cause harsh dense shadows
  37. Spotting
    spotting=harder=harsher shadows
  38. Flooding
    Flooding=softer=softer shadows
  39. Size of a Frensel light is indicated by?
    Wattage and is written on the light Example 1K
  40. Floodlights
    Produce a great amount of non directional, diffused light that yields transparent shadows
  41. Scoop
    Ideal for lighting large areas with relatively even light, old-fashioned but highly used
  42. Softlight
    relatively large, long tubelike lamps whose light bounces off with a curved, light-diffusing reflector
  43. Fluorescent bank
    consists of a series of fluorescent tubes; produces very soft light with slow fall off
  44. Soft light
    floodlight covered with diffusing material and delivers extremely diffused light. It causes very slow falloff and renders shadows virtually invisible
  45. An example of Portable Floodlights
    Chinese lanterns
  46. LED lights
    • last longer
    • generate less heat
    • expensive
  47. Ellipsoidal spotlight
    • used for special effects, produces high sharp beam/either rectangular or triangular
    • Can hold a cookie pattern
  48. Strip or cyc light
    Illuminates cycloramas (background curtain along studio or stage walls), drapes, or large areas of scenery
  49. Small EFP floodlight
    runs off ordinary household current and can be used to illuminate small areas
  50. Key light
    reveals the basic shape
  51. Fill light
    which fills in the shadows if they are too dense
  52. Back light
    which separates the object from the background and provides some sparkle
  53. High-Key lighting
    • Bright
    • diffused
    • slow-falloff or flat lighting
  54. Low-key lighting
    • Few spotlights to create selective lighting with fast falloff attached shadows and prominent cast shadows
    • Background typically dark, dramatic
  55. Light plot
    rough sketches to indicated light and directions
  56. Sound pick up principle
    How microphones change sound waves into sound signals
  57. Microphones
    Transduce sound waves into electric energy-the audio signal
  58. Pickup pattern
    territory around the microphone within which the mic can hear well
  59. Polar Pattern
    the 2-dimensional representation of the microphone pickup pattern
  60. Omnidirectional
    Hears well from all directions
  61. Uni directional
    Mic is designed to hear especially well from one direction to the front
  62. Cardioid Microphone
    Heart shaped pickup pattern of a unidirectional microphone
  63. Hypercardioid
    narrow unidirectional pickup pattern with a long reach. The mic is also sensitive to sounds coming directly from the back
  64. Dynamic Microphone
    most rugged you can take it outside in all kinda weather, and it can even withstand occasional rough handling
  65. Pop filter
    • many dynamic microphones have pop filters
    • Eliminates the breath pops that occur when someone speaks into the microphone at very close range
  66. Denser microphones
    are generally used for critical sound pickup indoors/but occasionally in the field
  67. Windscreen
    Made of acoustic foam rubber or other synthetic material
  68. Windstock/Wind jammer
    a fuzzy cloth resembling a mop that can be pulled over the windscreen
  69. Ribbon microphones
    audio-recording studios as for critical music pickup for television
  70. Lavalier mic
    short very small, rugged, omnidirectional microphone
  71. Transducer-ex:microphone
    devices that change one form of energy into another
  72. Sound Waves
    • rapidly expanding and contracting particles of air move through space in a relatively straight line
    • Microphone converts these vibrations into electrical current
  73. Bidirectional
    mic is sensitive to sounds from two directions
  74. Cardioid and hyper cardioid mics (shot gun mics)
    • unidirectional
    • long reach allow them to produce sounds that seem close even though the sound source might be far away
  75. When selecting a mic consider?
    • Pick up pattern
    • Sound generating element (transducer)
    • How it must be ised in conjunction with the camera
  76. Dynamic Microphones
    durable, less susceptible to wind noise and relatively inexpensive but will not provide the quality of sound that ribbon and condenser mics do
  77. Ribbon Mics
    • Delicate expensive
    • pref by radio and tv announcers
    • smooth bass accentuated
  78. Condenser mic
    • require a preamplifier powered by a battery in the mic handle (phantom power) that must be turned on and off to boosts signal
    • Sensitive-windscreen necessary
  79. Lavalier Mics
    • Small rugged
    • omnidirectional (dynamic or condenser)
    • clipped to clothing 6-8 inches
  80. Boom mic
    hypercardioid shotgun mic suspended from a boom pole
  81. Room tone
    • always record 30 sec to a minute
    • each locaction (or each scene)
    • -critical for editors
    • verbally slate each recording of a room tone
  82. AGC automatic gain control-sound
    • auto adjusts to sounds
    • -drawback it picks up all sound
  83. Manual Volume control
    • Channel 1 external mic
    • channel 2 recording ambient sound with camera mic
  84. audio mixer
    amplifies weak signals that come from the microphones and or other sound sources and lets you control the sound volume and mix (combine) two or more sound imputs
  85. Monophonic audio mixer
    3-4 inputs and one output
  86. Stereo mixer
    • 2 outputs one for the left channel and another for the right
    • -Rotary Pot/Fader-Volume control that works by sliding a button horizontally along a specific scale
    • A socket or receptacle for a connector
    • Volume unit VU meter
  87. Mic level input
    for weak audio signals, such as those coming from a microphone
  88. Line-level input
    Relatively strong audio signals
  89. Controlling the volume
    • Riding gain
    • to keep sound level
    • needle between 60-100 percent when recording analog sound
    • LED meters change color when the sound is overmodulated
  90. XLR pad
    • a way to prevent high volume distortion in digital sound
    • A connector with wich you can join two balanced audio cables
  91. Sound Calibration
    When the sound signals go through a mixer or the console before reaching the camcorder or the audio recording device
  92. Analog recording
    high quality reel to reel audiotape recorders (ATRs) use various tape widths, depending on the number of audio tracks recorded on them
  93. Audio Postproduction
    • -sweetening
    • -mixing various tracks
    • -creating new ones
    • room contains sound equipment the digital audio workstation
  94. Sound Waveform
    Graphic representation of the dynamics of various sounds as they progress in time, it facilitates sound editing
  95. Synthesized sound
    once sounds are in digital form, the computer can manipulate them. Create-synthesize-its own sounds
  96. Sound Aesthetics
    • 1.context
    • 2. figure/ground
    • 3. sound perspective
    • 4.continuity
    • 5. energy
  97. Windstock (wind jammer)
    a moplike cover over windscreen to further reduce wind noise
  98. Windscreen
    acoustic foam rubber that is put over the entire microphone to cut down wind noise
  99. Volume unit meter VU
    measures volume units, the relative loudness of amplified sound
  100. Production Model
    method of organizing details for moving from an original idea to a finished product
  101. Program objective
    • desired effect of our finished program on the viewer, allow us to determine the medium requirements necessary to produce the intended Communication effect
    • Ex: Do we shoot film or video? Widescreen or Academy? Handheld or tripod?
  102. Process Message
    message the audience perceives
  103. Angle
    • from which to approach the project
    • Specific approach to the movie
    • the point of view
  104. Fiction (narrative)
    • Feature films
    • Television Series
    • Miniseries
    • Made for TV movies
    • Interactive games
  105. Non fiction
    • Documentaries
    • News Programs
    • Commercials
    • Corporate videos
    • Educational and training videos
  106. Screenwriters
    must think visually in terms of settings, concrete actions, specific dialogue
  107. Premise
    • A statement that describes the basic idea of the story
    • One or more paragraphs that describe the basic story line of the film
  108. Treatment
    • written in 3rd person narrative summary of basic story lines. Should be highly readable and exciting portrayal of the story. 20-70 pages
    • Proposal
    • Rough draft
    • Final Draft
    • Shooting script
  109. Full-page formats
    Most narrative films use in which a single column is devoted to visuals and audio
  110. Split page format
    commercials and other non-fiction productions
  111. Semi-scripted format
    often used for talk shows and game shows and is based around the runtimes of segments
  112. Dramatic Structure
    • Opening////climax\\\\Resolution
    • 3 act structure with a series of rising and falling actions that culminate in a climax and resolution
  113. Rising Action Structure
    • Dramatic Tension must increase as the story progresses
    • Character tries to solve problem easily, with unexpected results
    • As problems progress the character's actions become increasingly desperate
  114. Stories are composed of
    • Acts
    • Sequences
    • Scenes
    • Beats
  115. Narrative Duration
    Difference between actual screen time and the supposed story time devoted to specific events
  116. Narrative Order
    Difference between the actual order of presentation of events in a film and the historical chronology of events
  117. Omniscient narrator
    is an unseen person who presents the story when no character takes responsibility for it
  118. Screenwriters must create a convincing balance between
    • Plot-telling of specific actions or events that unfold to create a story
    • Characterization- development of strong, believable, interesting characters through scripting their actions and words
    • Themes
  119. Central Characters
    • Protagonist
    • Antagonist
  120. Supporting character
    allies to the central protagonist and antagonist
  121. Secondary characters
    help create situations that provoke conflict but they are contributors to rather than initiators of, major action
  122. Narration for nonfiction films
    First person or third person
  123. Preproduction
    • includes all the planning and coordination of details before the actual production begins
    • Develop program idea, define the program objective, select the people and equipment, production plan, production budget
  124. Production
    starts when the process of shooting begins
  125. Postproduction
    involves editing the content generated during production into a finished product
  126. Medium Requirements
    as the logistical and personnel requirements for the production
  127. Executive Producer
    • generating production funding
    • managing the budget
    • coordinating with investors or corporate management
  128. Line Producer
    • day to day workings of production
    • production crew
    • technical and non-technical production elements
  129. Associate Producer
    • Assists the producer in all production matters
    • telephoning talent
    • ensuring all dead lines are met
  130. Production Assistant
    • assists the director
    • assistant director
    • and producer during production
    • typically multiple production assists on set
  131. Director
    In charge of directing talent and transforming the script into a visual message/in charge of how the picture looks and gets the talent to give the proper performances
  132. Assistant Director
    Runs the set and ensures the production schedule is met
  133. Talents
    refers to all performers and actors who appear in the film or video
  134. Writer
    writes the script for the production and may be present during shooting to amend scenes as per the directors wishes
  135. Art director (production designer)
    is in charge of all creative design elements of the production (set design, location, graphic design, wardrobe)
  136. Composer
    • music coordinator
    • movements of dancers, fight scenes
  137. Director of photography
    responsible for translating the directors vision into images through camera operation and lighting
  138. Camera Operator
    Assists the director of photography in camera operation
  139. Gaffer
    responsible for implementing the director of photography's lighting design
  140. Production Sound Mixer
    is responsible for the recording of all sound during the shoot
  141. Script supervisor
    keeps notes about individual camera takes and ensures continuity between shots
  142. Preproduction team
    • develop an idea for the project and plan on its production
    • -Producers, writer, and director
Card Set
Video Production
Test 2