Orchestration- Brass

  1. What are the Italian, French, and German words that mean "stopped" horn?
    • Italian- chiuso
    • French- bouche
    • German- gestopft
  2. What is a natural horn or trumpet?
    One which has no valves; the fundamental pitch is governed by the length of the tube.
  3. What are the differences between the brass mouthpieces?
    • Horn: funnel-shaped; Other brass: cup-shaped;
    • Shallowest to deepest: trumpet, trombone, tuba
  4. What was the highest partial demanded during the Classical period?
    the twelfth
  5. Define clarino trumpet playing.
    trumpet virtuosity in the Baroque period; fast melismatic passages
  6. Crook
    extra U-shaped tubing that allowed players to play notes in another harmonic series on the same instrument before the advent of valves
  7. Waldhorn
    natural horn
  8. Ventilhorn
    horn with valves
  9. What is the function of a valve?
    engages extra coiled tubing, allowing full chromaticism
  10. What happens when the first valve is depressed?
    Lowers open pitch a whole step
  11. What happens when the second valve is depressed?
    Lowers open pitch a half step
  12. What happens when the third valve is depressed?
    Lowers open pitch one and a half steps
  13. What happens when the first and third valve are depressed?
    Lowers open pitch P4
  14. What happens when the second and third valve are depressed?
    Lowers open pitch M3
  15. What happens when the first and second valve are depressed?
    Lowers open pitch m3
  16. What happens when all three valves are depressed?
    Lowers open pitch tritone
  17. What are positions on the trombone? What effect do they have?
    • Playing positions of the slide which have a certain fundamental pitch
    • The positions can be changed precisely and with perfect intonation, and any chromatic pitch can be played
  18. How many positions are there on the tenor trombone?
  19. Name the fundamental pitches in all positions on the tenor trombone.
    • I: Bb
    • II: A
    • III: Ab
    • IV: G
    • V: Gb
    • VI: F
    • VII: E
  20. What are the positions on the bass trombone?
    • I: F
    • II: E
    • III: Eb
    • IV: D
    • VI: Db
    • VII: C
  21. What is the fundamental in first position on the tenor trombone?
  22. What note is difficult to perform on the bass trombone unless an F attachment is present?
    B natural
  23. Name at least three brass mutes.
    • Straight
    • Cup
    • Harmon
    • Whispa
    • Solotone
    • Bucket
  24. What does a mute do to a brass instrument?
    • Makes it softer
    • Changes the character or color of the sound
    • Sometimes raises the pitch
  25. What is the standard orchestral mute?
    straight mute
  26. Name the usual brass complement of a large symphony orchestra.
    • 4 horns
    • 3 trumpets
    • 3 trombones
    • 1 tuba
  27. "Horn in Bb alto" vs. "Horn in Bb basso"
    • alto = high, basso = low
    • Alto transposes M2 down
    • Basso transposes M9 down
  28. What is the lowest written pitch for trumpet?
  29. What trills should be avoided for horn and trumpet?
    • Ab3 to Bb3
    • C4 to Db4
    • B3 to C#4
  30. What is meant by F, Bb, Eb, or double Bb tubas?
    all non-transposing; refers to range, fundamentals, and pedal tones
  31. How are most trills performed on the horn?
    Either with the valve or by manipulating the lips
  32. What is the difference in the transposition (sounding) of the F horn and the F trumpet?
    • F horn- down P5
    • F trumpet- up P4
  33. Remember to study construction of instruments!
    no answer
  34. What is the overtone series up to the 12th partial?
    • octave, P5, P4, M3, m3, m3, M2, M2, M2, M2, M2, OR...
    • octave, P5, P4, dominant 7 chord, whole step, Lydian scale (raised 4th)
  35. What is the range of the Bb trumpet?
    F#3 to D6
  36. What is the range of the C trumpet?
    F#3 to C6
  37. What is the range of the horn in F?
    F#2 to C6
  38. Of the three versions of the trombone, which is the most common in modern symphony orchestras?
    the tenor trombone
  39. What is the range of the tenor trombone?
    E2 to Bb4
  40. What is the range of the bass trombone?
    Bb1 to Bb4
  41. What is the range of the tuba?
    D1 to G4
  42. What is the range of the euphonium and the tenor tuba?
    Bb1 to Bb4
  43. What is the range of the baritone?
    E2 to Bb4
  44. How are the brass instruments scored?
    • Horns 1 & 2
    • Horns 3 & 4
    • Trumpets 1 & 2
    • Trumpet 3
    • Trombones 1 & 2
    • Trombone 3- bass
    • Tuba
  45. In what clef(s) does the horn in F write?
    bass and treble
  46. In what clef(s) does the trumpet write?
  47. In what clef(s) does the trombone write?
    bass and tenor
  48. In what clef(s) does the tuba write?
  49. In what clef(s) does the baritone write?
  50. In what clef(s) do the euphonium and tenor tuba write?
  51. Know what each instrument sounds like!
    no answer
  52. What is a valve horn or trumpet?
    rotary valves activate extra coiled tubing when pressed, rendering the instrument completely chromatic
  53. What is a Wagner tuba? Name some composers other than Wagner who have used it.
    • It's shaped like a horn and sounds like one, only much lower
    • Bruckner and Strauss
  54. What is the major difference between a euphonium and a baritone?
    The euphonium's bore is more conical.
  55. Describe an ophicleide and its sound.
    • Looks like a metal bassoon except with a conical tube with a wide bell
    • Sounds mellow, like a euphonium
  56. How does the diameter of the bell contribute to the sound of the brass instrument?
    The smaller the bell, the more controlled, and the bigger, the more spread the sound moves.
  57. Give the transpositions (soundings) for horn in:
    A basso, Bb basso, C basso, D, Eb, E, F, G, Ab, A, Bb alto, C alto
    • A basso: 8ve and m3 lower
    • Bb basso: M9 lower
    • C basso: 8ve lower
    • D: m7 lower
    • Eb: M6 lower
    • E: m6 lower
    • F: P5 lower
    • G: P4 lower
    • Ab: M3 lower
    • A: m3 lower
    • Bb alto: M2 lower
    • C alto: sounds as written
  58. Give the transpositions (soundings) for trumpet in:
    A, Bb, B, C, D, Eb, E, F, Bb piccolo
    • A: m3 down
    • Bb: M2 down
    • B: m2 down
    • C: as written
    • D: M2 up
    • Eb: m3 up
    • E: M3 up
    • F: P4 up
    • Bb piccolo: m7 up
  59. How do the tenor and bass trombones transpose?
    They don't.
  60. How do the euphonium, F tuba, CC tuba, and BBb tuba transpose?
    They don't.
  61. What are the four major functions of the brass choir?
    • 1. as a homophonic unit (alone or in combination with other orchestral choirs)
    • 2. as a presenter of melody (as a soloist, in combination with other instruments, or as an independent voice in a contrapuntal texture)
    • 3. as a builder of orchestral climaxes
    • 4. as a provider of coloristic effects (muted, jazzy, or more novel sounds and techniques)
  62. In what register should you avoid writing long passages for the tuba?
    below the staff (bass clef)
Card Set
Orchestration- Brass
brass- construction, transposition, technique, part writing