Embryology Test two

  1. Sperm + Egg =
  2. Which is not one of the periods of prenatal development?
    a. preimplantation
    b. embryonic
    c. fetal
    d. primoridium
    D. primoridium
  3. __________is the time frame for the embryonic period.
    Week 2-8
  4. the zygote must travel from the_______________to the uterine wall
    fallopian tube (fertilization site)
  5. the blastocyst consists of which layers?
    embryoblast and trophoblast
  6. an ectopic pregnancy occurs when:
    a. more than one sperm fertilizes the egg
    b. the zygote implants anywhere other than the uterine wall
    c. the cervix doesn't stay contracted and cannot hold the weight of a baby
    d. the chromatids do not completely separate during meiosis
    B. the zygote implants anywhere other than the uterine wall
  7. What is the developmental process occurring in order from beginning to end?
    induction, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, maturation
  8. histodifferentiation is the development of different____________in a structure
  9. which of the following processes involves embryonic cells becoming distinct structurally and functionally?
    a. proliferation
    b. differentiation
    c. morphogenesis
    d. maturation
    B. differentiation
  10. what process involves controlled cellular growth
  11. What layers does the bilaminar embryonic disc consist of?
    epiblast and hypoblast
  12. what serves as initial nourishment for the embryonic disc?
    yolk sac
  13. what are the three layers of the trilaminar embryonic disc?
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
    • endoderm
  14. the placenta develop from interactions between the endometrial tissues and_________
    trophoblast layer
  15. which of the following resembles a bum?
    a. cephalic end
    b. caudal end
    c. mesenchyme
    d. primitive streak
    D. primitive streak
  16. the cloacal membrane will give rise to what?
    the terminal end of the digestive tract
  17. which of these does not come from endoderm?
    a. respiratory system linings
    b. digestive system linings
    c. liver cells
    d. epidermis
    D. epidermis
  18. what is one harmful thing that can cross through the placenta (that we discussed in class)?
  19. Development of the face and neck begins when?
    week 4
  20. all of the arches and processes are formed with all of these except?
    a. ectoderm
    b. mesoderm
    c. endoderm
    d. cartilage
    D. cartilage
  21. the frontonasal process gives rise to all of the following except:
    a. upper face
    b. maxillary incisors
    c. maxillary canines
    d. bridge of nose
    C. maxillary canines
  22. what is the best definition of a placode?
    thickened ectoderm that will develop into sensory organs
  23. lens placodes will become?
  24. otic placodes will become?
    ears - tubes
  25. nasal placodes will become:
    nasal cavity
  26. the medial nasal process will fuse_____________________to form the middle portion of the nose, and_______________to form the intermaxillary segment
    • externally
    • internally
  27. which of the following embryonic structures will eventually form the alae of the nose?
    a. otic placodes
    b. medial nasal processes
    c. intermaxillary segment
    d. lateral nasal processes
    D. lateral nasal processes
  28. the nasolacrimal groove is formed from the fusion of the?
    lateral nasal processes and the maxillary processes
  29. previous to the fourth week of development, the stomodeum was sealed off by what?
    oropharyngeal membrane
  30. list 3 things that will develop from the mandibular arch
    • lower lip
    • lower mandible with teeth
    • mastication muscles
  31. which of the following comes from meckel's cartilage?
    a. stapes
    b. malleus
    c. hyoid
    d. thymus
    B. malleus
  32. the branchial groove will develop into?
  33. which of these is not derived from reichert's cartilage?
    a. stapes
    b. incus
    c. styloid process
    d. upper portion of hyoid bone
    B. incus
  34. the third branchial arch will give rise to which muscle?
    pharyngeal muscle
  35. the second pharyngeal pouch gives rise to what structure?
    palatine tonsils
  36. The primary palate forms from which process?
    frontonasal process
  37. why does the tongue move from the pharynx to the oral cavity?
    to move out of the way of the palatal shelves that "snap" upward
  38. in the case of cleft uvula, what happened?
    palatal shelves (secondary palate) didn't fuse completely in the back
  39. can you ever have a unilateral cleft of the secondary palate? why or why not?
    no, because the secondary palate forms when the bilateral shelves fuse with each other in the middle. So if one doesn't fuse, the other won't have anything to fuse with either
  40. the nasal septum forms from which process?
    frontonasal process
  41. snoring and other problems can be caused by a ______________ _______________
    deviated septum
  42. epiglottic swelling becomes?
  43. copula becomes the?
    base of tongue
  44. tuberculum impar becomes the?
    body of tongue
  45. What is the best definition of ankyloglossia?
    the cells that anchor the tongue didn't degenerate enough, so they restrict movement of the tongue
  46. What is the purpose of the epiglottis?
    it covers the trachea when we swallow food and water to stop us from drowning
  47. the________________ __________________is the opening to the thyroglossal duct.
    foramen cecum
  48. the fusion between the lateral lingual swellings creates the_____________ _____________ while the fusion between the body and base of the tongue creates the________________ ______________
    • median lingual suclus
    • sulcus terminalis
  49. why is the tongue innervated with so many different nerves?
    because it comes from so many different branchial arches
  50. Which of the following teeth is succadaneous?
    a. 1
    b. 2
    c. 3
    d. 4
    D. 4
  51. during the cap stage of tooth development, the tooth germ consists of?
    enamel organ, dental sac, and dental papilla
  52. What is the difference between gemination and fusion?
    • gemination - the tooth germ unsuccessfully tries to split; one root
    • fusion - crowns of 2 teeth fuse together, looks like one tooth on top, but has more than one root
  53. support structure for ameloblasts
    outer enamel epithelium
  54. will differentiate into ameloblasts
    inner enamel epithelium
  55. will differentiate into odontoblasts
    outer cells of dental papilla
  56. will differentiate into the dental pulp
    inner cells of dental papilla
  57. what induces the cells of the dental sac to differentiate into cementocytes?
    the newly formed dentin
  58. enamel hypoplasia is decreased_______________of the matrix, while enamel hypocalcification is decreased ________________ because it didn't fully mineralize
    • quantity
    • quality
  59. the periodontal ligament secures the tooth by anchoring into the__________and the____________.
    • cementum
    • alveolar bone
  60. bending of roots because HERS was distorted is a definition of which developmental disturbance?
  61. passive eruption is when the gingiva recedes around the tooth. Active eruption is when the tooth moves in a horizontal position to erupt.
    the first statement is true and the second statement is false
  62. what is the difference between a dentigerous cyst and an eruption cyst?
    • dentigerous cyst - occurs when the tooth is impacted around a fully formed crown
    • eruption cyst - occurs while the tooth is erupting and usually goes away once the tooth is fully erupted
  63. which of the following fuses with the oral epithelium during eruption?
    a. IEE
    b. OEE
    c. REE
    d. HERS
    C. REE
  64. Where is a location where you would find pseudostratified epithelium?
    lining the upper respiratory tract
  65. lines the bone marrow. similar to perichondrium
  66. connective tissue sheath that surround the entire bone
  67. innermost part of the bone where blood cells are produced
    bone marrow
  68. surrounds the bone marrow, spongy
    cancellous bone
  69. surrounds the cancellous bone, very dense
    compact bone
  70. the inorganic substance that mineralizes bone and enamel is called:
    calcium hydroxyapatite
  71. afferent nerves carry messages from the brain to the body. efferent nerves carry messages from the body to the brain.
    both statements are false
  72. What are the 2 layers of the connective tissue proper?
    • loose connective tissue proper
    • dense connective tissue proper
  73. _____________work together to form tissues. Tissues work together to form______________. (same word as second blank) work together to form_______________
    • cells
    • organs
    • systems
  74. which is not a layer of the orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
    a. basal layer
    b. intermediate layer
    c. prickle layer
    d. granular layer
    B. intermediate layer
  75. the basal layer of oral mucosa generally has?
    cells undergoing mitosis
  76. when viewing the oral mucosa of the floor of the mouth through a microscope, what is seen?
    salivary glands
  77. What area of the oral cavity is categorized as having a lining mucosa?
    soft palate
  78. what type of tissue makes up the lamina propria of oral mucosa?
    connective tissue
  79. the turnover time for taste buds is?
    10 days
  80. the mucogingival junction is the scalloped division between the attached gingiva and the___________
    alveolar mucosa
  81. what is the difference between orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium?
    orthokeratinized have no nuclei, parakeratinized have nuclei
  82. buccal mucosa is to lining mucosa as____________________ is to _________________
    attached gingiva is to masticatory mucosa
  83. before eruption of the tooth and after enamel maturation, which cells secrete a basal lamina on the surface that serves as a portion of the primary epithelial attachment?
  84. the attached gingiva and buccal mucosa are mainly pinkish in color and not reddish due to the?
    increased thickness of the epithelial layers
  85. where does cell renewal of the junctional epithelium take place?
    basal layer of the tissue
  86. the free gingival groove separates the attached gingiva from the___________________
    marginal gingiva
  87. what are the 3 medications that can cause gingival hyperplasia?
    • dilantin
    • cyclosporine
    • nifedipine
  88. gingival recession is measured from the_____________to the___________________
    cementoenamel junction to the free gingival margin
  89. what stops your probe when inserted into the gingival sulcus?
    epithelial attachment
  90. sulcular epithelium is to tightly packed desmosomes as _______________ is to _______________
    junctional epithelium is to loosely packed desomosomes
  91. during gingivitis, the junctional epithelium is more permeable. this allows the migration of___________ but also lets_________________into the tissue
    • white blood cells
    • bacteria
  92. which of these is not a feature of periodontitis?

    B. reversible
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Embryology Test two
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