1. How many minerals are known to be essential
  2. Functions of Minerals
    Building tissue and activating, regulating, transmitting and controlling metabolic processes
  3. Mineral Metabolism
    • Digestion - absorbed and used in ionic form
    • Absorption
    • Transport - travel thorughout the body bouned to plasma protein
    • Tissue Uptake - Minerals go to target tissue and excess excreted in pee
  4. Occurences in the Body
    They occur as free ions in body fluids or they occur covalently bound with another mineral
  5. Calcium (Ca)
    Function: Bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction and relaxtion, nerve transmission
  6. Calcium
    Tetany, Rickets, Osteoporosis
  7. Calcium Toxicity
    Increase risk of kidy stones, constipation, interferes with absorption of other nutrients
  8. Phosphorus (P) Functions
    Bone and Tooth formation, energy metabolism, DNA and RNA, acid-base balance
  9. Phosphorus Deficiency
    unlikely, but can cause bone loss, loss of appetite, weakness
  10. Phosphorus Toxicity
    Bone resorption and loss of calcium
  11. Sodium (Na) Function
    • Major extra cellular fluid control
    • water balance
    • acid-base balance
    • Muscle action
    • ttransmission of nerve impulse and resulting contraction
  12. Sodium Deficiency
    • Fluid Shifts
    • acid base imbalace
    • cramping
  13. Sodium toxicity
    • Hypertension in salt sensitive people
    • && edema
  14. Potassium (K) Functions
    • Major intracellular fluid control
    • acid-base balance
    • regulation of nerve impulse and muscle contraction
    • blood pressure regulation
  15. Potassium Deficiency
    • Irregular heatbeat
    • difficulty breathing
    • muscle weakness
  16. Potassium Toxicity
    • Not set
    • Cardiac arrest
  17. Chloride (Cl) Functions
    • Acid-base balance (chloride shift)
    • Hydrochloric acid (digestion)
  18. Chloride deficiency
    • hypochloremic alkalosis in porlonged vomiting
    • diarrhea
  19. Chloride Toxicity
    Not set and unlikely
  20. Magnesium )Mg) functions
    • Coenzyme in metabolism
    • muscle and nerve action
    • aids thyroid hormone secretion
  21. Magnesium Deficiency
    • Tremor
    • spasm
    • low serum level after GI losses or renal losses from alcoholism
    • Convulsions
  22. Magnesium toxicity
    Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  23. Sulfur functions
    • Essential constituent of cell protein, hair, skin, nails, vitamin, and collagen structure
    • high energy sulfur bounds in energy metabolism
  24. Sulfur deficiency and toxicity
    not likely
  25. What are major minerals
    calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur
  26. what are the trace minerals
    iron, iodine zinc selenium fluoride, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum
  27. Iron Functions
    Hemoglobin and myoglobin formation, cellular oxidation of glucose antibody production
  28. Iron deficiency
    • anemia
    • pale skin
    • impaired immune function
  29. Iron Toxicity
    • Nausea vomiting diarrhea
    • liver kidney heart and CNS damage
  30. Iodine Functions
    Synthesis of T4 which regulates cell oxidation and BMR
  31. Iodine deficiency
    Goiter, cretinism, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism
  32. Iodine toxicity
  33. Zinc Functions
    • essential enzyme constituent
    • protein metabolism
    • storage of insulin
    • immune system
    • sexual maturation
  34. Zinc deficiency
    • Impaired wound healing and taste and smell acuity
    • retarded sexual and physical development
  35. Zinc toxicity
    Nausea, vomiting, decreased immune function, impaired copper absorption
  36. Selenium Functions
    Forms glutathione peroxidase, spares vitamin e as an antioxidant, protects lipids in cell membrane
  37. Selenium Deficiency
    • Impared immune function
    • heart muscle failure
  38. Selenium Toxicity
    • brittleness of hair and nails
    • GI upset
  39. Fluoride functions
    • constituent of bone and teeth
    • prevents cavities aka dental caries
  40. Fluoride deficiency
    increased dental caries
  41. fluoride toxicity
    dental fluorosis
  42. copper functions
    • associated with iron in energy production
    • hemoglobin synthesis
    • absorption and transport of iron
    • nerve and immune function
  43. copper deciciency
    anemia, bone abnormalities
  44. copper toxicity
    • WILSONS disease
    • resulting in lever and nerve conduction damage
  45. Manganese functions
    • activates reaction in urea synthesis
    • energy metabolism
    • lipoprotein clearance
    • and sythesis of fatty acids
  46. Manganese deficiency
    clinical deficiency present only in protein energy malnutrition
  47. Manganese toxicity
    inhalation toxicity in miners, neuromuscular disturbances
  48. Chromium functions
    Associated with glucos metabolism
  49. Chromium deficiency and toxicity
    deficiency- impared glucose metabolism

    toxicity - not likely
  50. Molybdenum (Mo) Functions
    Constitutent of many enzymes
  51. Molybdenum deficiency and toxicity
  52. Keshan Disease
    a heart muscle disease that primarily affects yound children and women of childbearing age and can lead to heart failure from cardiomyopathy
  53. Osteoporosis is cause by
    • inadequate calcium intake
    • poor intestinal calcium absorption
    • lack of physical activity

    Osteoporosis - loss of bone density
Card Set
Major and Trace minerals