Biology Test 2

  1. What are the different types of energy?
    • Nuclear
    • Light
    • Heat
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
    • Mechanical
    • Sound
  2. What is important ablut Chemical Energy?
    It supports life, Some bacteria derive energy from inorganic chemicals. The bacteria then synthesize organic compounds that sustain them and the organisms that consume them.
  3. What is Potential Energy?
    Is stored energy available to do work
  4. What is kinetic energy?
    is energy being used to do work, any moving object possesses kinetic energy
  5. What are the Laws of Thermodynamics?
    • 1st Law: States that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only converted to other forms; means that the total amount of energy in the universe is constant.
    • 2nd Law: states that all energy transformations are inefficent because every reactions loses some energy to the surroundings as heat.
  6. What is entropy?

    Energy tends to go from organized towards disorganized
  7. Sun is our only source of energy

    As energy moves from one organisms to another, being eaten, much of the energy is transferred to heat(entrophy) and is unusable to biological organisms
  8. Energy flows through an ecosystem
    Whether its stored or released during respiration

    What does Endergonic mean?
    What does Exergonic mean?
    • Endergonic: When energy is required
    • Exergonic: When energy is released
  9. What are enzymes?

    What does Catalyst mean?

    What is an active site?

    What is a substrate?
    • Enzymes: most are types of protein that is used to acclelerate chemical reactions (catalyst), allowing chemical reactions to keep up with the body's demands
    • Each type of enzyme works on only one or two moleculesBreakdown or building of a molecule occurs in a sequence: metabolic pathway
    • Catalyst: reduce amount of energy needed for chemical reaction, and actually speeding up the reaction rate

    Active site: of the enzyme is the receptor for a substrate

    Substrate: molecule being broken down
  10. What are the ways Enzymes reactions are regulated?
    • Negative feedback: Feeback inhibition: in which an excess of a reactions product inhibits the enzyme that controls its formation
    • 1) Noncompetitive inhibition: product molecules bind to enzyme at a site other then the active site (allosteric site), but in a way that alters the shape of the enzyme so that it can no longer bind substrate
    • 2) Competitive inhibition: the product of the reaction binds to the enzymes active site, preventing it from binding substrate

    Positive Feedback: a product activates the pathway

    Allosteric site: is a different binding place on an enzyme where a different molecule binds, which causes it to change shape
  11. Phospholipid bilayer
    a biological membrane is a phospholipid bilayer studded with proteins
  12. Passive Transport
Card Set
Biology Test 2
Test 2 Flashcards