Quiz 2

  1. Psychosocial tasks for each trimester of pregnancy:
    • 1st trimester: accepting the pregnancy
    • 2nd trimester: accepting the baby
    • 3rd trimester: preparing for the baby and end of pregnancy
  2. Couvade syndrome
    when men experience the physical symptoms of pregnancy when their partner is pregnant
  3. Primigravida
    a woman in her first pregnancy
  4. Multipara
    a woman who has had one or more children
  5. Lightening
    • about 2 weeks before term, the fetal head settles into the pelvis to prepare for birth
    • the uterus returns to the height it was at 36 weeks
    • a woman's breathing will be easier, seems to lighten the load
  6. Hegar's sign
    • extreme softening of the lower uterine segment upon bimanual examination
    • a probably sign of pregnancy
    • occurs in the 6th week of pregnancy
  7. Ballottement
    • upon bimanual examination, tap the lower uterine segment and you can feel the fetus bounce or rise in the amniotic fluid against the top hand
    • a probably sign of pregnancy
    • occurs during the 16th-20th week of pregnancy
  8. Braxton Hicks contraction
    • begin by the 8-12th week of pregnancy
    • "practice" contractions
  9. Operculum
    • mucous plug in cervical canal that protects the fetus from bacteria
    • discharged as a preparation for birth
    • "bloody show"
  10. Goodell's sign
    • softening of the cervix in pregnancy
    • extreme softness just before birth - "ripe"
  11. Chadwick's sign
    vaginal walls change from light pink to deep violet during pregnancy
  12. Montgomery's tubercles
    • sebaceous glads of the areola
    • enlarge and become protuberant during pregnancy
  13. Striae gravidarum
    stretch marks
  14. Diastasis
    • when the abdominal wall can't stretch enough during pregnancy, the recctus muscles separate
    • the site appears as a bluish groove
  15. Linea nigra
    narrow brown line appears along happy trail during pregnancy
  16. Melasma (Chloasma)
    • darker pigmentation on cheeks and across nose during pregnancy
    • "mask of pregnancy"
  17. Changes in respiratory system during pregnancy
    • chronic respiratory alkalosis fully compensated by a chronic metabolic acidosis
    • chronis shortness of breath
  18. Para
    • number of pregnancies that have reached viability
    • regardless of whether the infants were born alive
  19. Gravida
    • Woman who is or has been pregnant
    • Number of pregnancies
  20. Primipara
    woman who has given birth to one child past the age of viability
  21. Multipara
    woman who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability
  22. Nulligravida
    woman who has never been pregnant and is not currently pregnant
  23. Colostrum
    • a thin, watery, yellow fluid that precedes breast milk
    • composed of protein, sugar, fat, water, minerals, vitamins, and maternal antibodies
  24. Leukorrhea
    • a whitish, viscous vaginal discharge
    • a response to high estrogen levels during pregnancy
  25. TORCH infections
    • teratogenic maternal infections
    • Toxoplasmosis - cat litter
    • Other - HBV, HIV
    • Rubella
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex virus
  26. Hyperplasia
    • growth occuring from increasing the number of cells formed
    • occurs early in pregnancy
  27. Hypertrophy
    • growth occuring from enlargement of existing cells
    • occurs late in pregnancy
  28. Recommended weight gain during pregnancy
    • 25-35 lbs
    • or adjusted per a woman's needs
    • per trimester: 3-12-12
  29. Why is folic acid so important during pregnancy?
    Necessary for red blood cell formation. Since a woman's blood volume doubles, she needs lots of folic acid.
  30. Pyrosis
  31. Why are respiratory disorders more serious in children than adults?
    • lumens are smaller, more likely to be obstructed
    • too little or excessive mucus production
  32. Hypoxia vs. cyanosis
    • hypoxia: decreased oxygen in body cells
    • cyanosis: a blue tinge to the skin
  33. Epiglottitis s/s
    • - dysphagia
    • - inspiratory stridor
    • - cough
    • - high fever
    • - hoarseness
    • - very sore throat

    do not attempt to visualize spiglottis unless there is an artificial airway readily available!
  34. Ventricular septal defect
    • an opening is present in the septum between the two ventricles
    • blood shunts from left to right across the septum
    • increased pulmonic blood flow
    • acyanotic disorder
    • results in R ventricular hypertrophy and increased pressure in the pulmonary artery
  35. Patent ductus arteriosus
    • duct from the pulmonary artery to the aorta doesn't close at birth
    • blood shunts from the aorta to the pulmonary artery
    • causes increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation and R ventricle hypertrophy
    • given indomethacin/Indocin or ibuprofen (prostaglandin inhibitors) to promote closure
  36. Pharmacologic interventions to obstruction of blood flow in children
    • beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers: reduce cardic hypertrophy before the defect is corrected
    • digoxin and diuretics: reduce the severity of CHF from HTN (age appropriate HR for dig!!!)
    • beta-blocker (propranolol/Inderal): to aid pulmonary artery dilation in a hypoxic episode of Tetralogy of Fallot
    • prostaglandin (PGE): to keep ducts patent
    • prostaglandin inhibitor (indomethacin/Indocin): to close ducts
  37. Transposition of the Great Arteries
    • the aorta arises from the R ventricle instead of the L
    • the pulmonary artery arises from the L ventricle instead of the R
    • creates two systems of blood flow - deoxygenated blood flowing to the body and oxygenated blood flowing to the lungs
    • only survivable is there are septal defects as well
  38. Tetralogy of Fallot
    • four anomolies: pulmonary stenosis, VSD, dextroposition (overriding) of the aorta, and hypertrophy of the R ventricle
    • d/t pulmonary stenosis, blood shunts from the R side to the L ventricle and the aorta, the added effort causes the hypertrophy
    • common with Down Syndrome
    • during hypoxic episode, place in knee-chest position, give O2, give morphine sulfate or propranolol
  39. indomethacin/Indocin
    • NSAID
    • inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
    • encourage duct closure in the heart in PDA
    • assess for glomerular filtration, impaired platelet aggregation, and diminished gastrointestinal and cerebral blood flow
  40. Pain scales for children
    • CRIES: assesses infants (crying, O2, vitals, facial expression, and sleeplessness)
    • FLACC: uses five types of behavior in children/infants (facial expression, leg movement, activity, cry, consolability)
    • FACES: uses 6 cartoon faces, can be used as young as 3yrs
  41. Learning at each stage of childhood:
    • infant: explores environment with their senses
    • toddler: needs rituals, likes imitation
    • preschooler: centered, role-playing
    • school-age: immediate reward, the "right" way to do things
    • adolescent: wants immediately benefit from information
  42. Fear at each stage of childhood:
    • infant: separation
    • toddler/preschooler: separation, the dark, the unknown, intrustive procedures, mutilation
    • school-age/adolescent: loss of body parts, loss of life, loss of friends
  43. Play for children on bedrest
    • infant: stimulation, hands, soft toys
    • toddlers: put-in, take-out games
    • preschool: creative materials
    • school-age: books, crayons, music, projects
  44. Signs of pregnancy
    • presumptive: amenorrhea, sore breasts, n/v
    • probable: + preggo test, HCG test
    • positive: fetal heart sound, visualization of the fetus, movement of the fetus
Card Set
Quiz 2
quiz 2