Ammonia from liver combines with carbon dioxide to form what?
True or False: Urea is less toxic than ammonia?
The Urinary System excretes 3 metabolic wastes, what are they?
This is a By-product of creatine phosphate breakdown
This is a By-product of the breakdown of nucleotides
A build up Uric Acid causes this?
True or False: Blood volume is not associated with salt balance
False: Blood volume is associated with salt balance
Maintenance of salt-water balance in the urinary system, what causes osmosis into the blood?
The more water in the urinary system, the lower or higher the blood pressure?
How do the kidneys play a role in blood pressure regulation?
Through water and salt regulation
Maintenance of water/salt balance regulates these three things
Potassium, bicarbonate and calcium ions
Maintenance of water/salt balance excretion of this happens
Maintenance of water/salt balance reabsorption of this happens
Urine ph is normally around what?
6 due to a high acid diet.
In the urinary system what 2 hormones are secreted?
Renin and erythropoietin
Secretion of renin (a hormone) in the urinary system leads to this being released from the adrenals?
Secretion of renin (a hormone) in the urinary system leads to aldosterone being released from the adrenals and the reabsorption of this?
This hormone secreted in the urinary system stimulates red blood cell production?
This hormone secreted in the urinary system activates vitamin D for calcium absorption
The four urinary organs
Kidneys, Ureters, urinary bladder and Urethra
This urinary organ is located in the lumbar region behind the peritoneum
This urinary organ is covered by tough capsule and has a concave side-hilus
This urinary organ is the location of the renal artery and vein
This conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder
This urinary organ has a three layered wall (mucosa, smooth muscle and outer connective tissue)
This urinary organ conveys urine by peristalsis
This urinary organ stores unine
The walls of the urinary bladder are made up of what type of muscle
What urinary organ is the trigon region � due to three openings
The urinary bladder is expandable and made up of these three things
The middle layer of circular muscle, 2 layers of longitudinal muscle and lined with transitional epithelium
What are the two sphincters in the bladder neck?
Internal and external
The internal sphincter in the urinary bladder has smooth muscle and what type of control? Voluntary or involuntary
The external sphincter in the urinary bladder has skeletal muscle and what type of control? Voluntary or involuntary
This urinary organ conducts urine out of the body
What is the size of the urethra in females?
What is the size of the urethra in males?
Since the urethra in females is very short, it increases the likelihood of what?
A urinary tract infection
In males, the prostate is associated with what urinary organ?
In males, this urinary organ is a common pathway for reproductive and urinary tracts
Stretch receptors in the wall of the bladder send impulses when the bladder fills to how many ml to stimulate urination
In the urinary system, motor impulses from the spinal cord stimulates bladder contraction and micturiton occurs and what is the result of all this
If micturition reflex can be over ridden by the brain in adults and older children, what can be delayed till an appropriate time
Each kidney contains over 1 million of these tiny blood processing units
These are the structural and functional units of the kidneys?
Each nephron is composed of a system of what?
Each system of tubules has its own blood supply. From the renal artery to the afferent arteriole to where?
The glomerulus are know as what in the blood flow of the kidneys
In the kidneys blood flow leaves the glomerulus by way of what
Blood path in the kidney goes from the renal artery to the afferent arteriole then in the glomerulus (specialized capillaries) then leaves the glomerulus by way of the efferent arteriole then to where?
The final blood vessal in the path of blood flow through the kidney is what
the renal vein
The kidneys have a rich blood supply and is what portion of the total cardiac output each minute.
The renal arteries divides into how many segmental arteries in the kidneys
Within the renal sinus, each segmental artery branches further to form what?
several interlobar arteries.
At the medulla-cortex junction, the interlobar arteries branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over what?
the medullary pyramids.
These radiate outward from the arcuate arteries to supply the cortical tissue.
Small cortical radiate arteries
What percentage of the blood entering the kidney perfuses (pour or defuses) the renal cortex.
These pretty much trace the pathway of the arterial supply in reverse
What is the pathway of blood flow leaving the renal cortex? (4 blood vessles)
cortical radiate vein, arcuate vein, interlobar vein then finally the renal vein. no segmental veins.
The renal veins issue from the kidneys and empty into the what
inferior vena cava
The nerve supply of the kidneys are a variable network of autonomic nerve fibers and ganglia called what?
the renal plexus
The renal plexus is largely supplied by sympathetic fibers from where?
Thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nervers, that run with the renal artery
This regulates renal blood flow by adjusting the diameter of renal arterioles
Syspathetic vasomotor fibers
These fibers influence the urine forming role of the nephrons
sympathetic vasomotor fibers
Each nephron glomerulus and a renal tubule. The renal tubule is a cuplike structure called what?
goomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule.
T or F: Glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule are made up of specialized cells?
true: highly modified, branching epithelial cells
The visceral layer (or inner layer) of the glomerular capsule (Bowman's) have cells called what?
podocytes (foot cells)
What layer of the glomerular capsule cling to the glomerular capillaries
The visceral or inner layer
In the glomerular capsule (bowman's) form pores for passage of what
The part of the renal tubule closest to the renal corpuscle is called what?
Proximal convoluted tubule - PCT
The walls of the proximal convoluted tubule PCT are formed by what
cuboidal epithelial cells with microvilli
The walls of the proximal convoluted tubule PCT bear dense microvilli for what purpose
dramatically increases the surface area for absorption.
The proximal convoluted tubule PCT makes a hairpin loop called what
loop of henle
The section of the Loop of Henle thats called the thin segment, has what type of cells
simple squamous epithelium
The nephrons have short and long loops (Henle). What percentages have long loops and what percentage hase short loops
20% of long (Henle) and 80% of short
The further away renal tubule from the renal corpuscle is called what
Distal convoluted tubule DCT
The walls of the distal convoluted tubule DCT are formed by what
Cuboidal epithelial cells with NO microvilli
Distal convoluted tubule DCT of several nephrons enter how many collecting ducts
Collecting ducts empty into where
the renal pelvis
Glomerular capillaries and convoluted tubules lie within what part of the kidney
The long loops of Henle extend into what part of the kidney
This region of a nephron is where the most distal portion of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle lies against the afferent arteriole fedding the glomerulus. What is this region called
Juxtaglomerular apparatus JGA
The arteriole walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus have what type of cells
granular cells or juxtaglomerular cells
These are enlarged, smooth muscle cells with prominent secretory granules containing renin
granular cells or juxtaglomerular cells.
Granular cells act as mechanoreceptors that sense the blood pressure Where
in the afferent arteriole.
This is a group of tall, tightly packed cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle that lies adjacent to the granular cells?
These are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the NaCl content of the filtrate.
The Juxtaglomerular apparatus include two cell populations that play important roles in what? (2 things)
regulating the rate of filtrate and systemic blood pressure