Introductory Anatomical Terms

  1. What is anatomical position?
    • Erect / Supine (lying on back)
    • Arms and legs adducted (close to the body)
    • Head and feet facing forward (anterior)
    • Palms supinated (palms facing upward)
  2. What are the planes of movement?
    • 1. Sagittal (Median)
    • 2. Frontal (Coronal)
    • 3. Transverse (Horizontal)
  3. Describe the sagittal plane.
    • Longitudinal plane that divides body into left and right halves (not necessarily equal halves)
    • The mid-sagittal plane is divided into equal left and right halves
    • Somersaults, front flips, and squats occur in the sagittal plane
  4. Describe the frontal plane.
    • Vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior parts
    • Cartwheels, jumping jacks, and lateral raises occur in the frontal plane
  5. Describe the horizontal plane.
    • Horizontal plane
    • Perpendicular to both sagittal and frontal planes
    • Divides the body into superior and inferior parts
    • Trunk twists occur in the horizontal plane
  6. Superior
    To the top
  7. Inferior
  8. Anterior
  9. Posterior
  10. Medial
    Toward the midline
  11. Lateral
    Away from the midline
  12. Proximal
    Nearer to the trunk
  13. Distal
    Away from the trunk
  14. Supine
    Face up
  15. Prone
    Face down
  16. External
  17. Internal
  18. Plantar
    Towards sole of foot
  19. Dorsal
    Top of foot
  20. Superficial
    Toward surface (skin)
  21. Palmar
    Palm of hand
  22. Ipsilateral
    Same side (right knee, right shoulder)
  23. Contralateral
    Opposite side (right knee, left knee)
  24. AB-duction
    Away from the trunk
  25. AD-duction
    Toward the trunk
  26. Horizontal AB-duction
    Arm out to the side
  27. Horizontal AD-duction
    Arm across the chest
  28. Circumduction
    Circular movement of joint (this can only occur at ball and socket joints like the hip and shoulder)
  29. Dorsiflexion
    Top of foot moves toward tibia
  30. Plantarflexion
    Sole of foot moves downward (standing on toes is ankle plantarflexion)
  31. Eversion
    Sole of foot moves outward
  32. Inversion
    Sole of foot moves inward
  33. Extension
    Straightening; Increasing joint angle
  34. Flexion
    Bending; Decreasing joint angle
  35. Pronation
    Rotation on axis of bone; turning palms down
  36. Supination
    Rotation on axis of bone; turning palms up
  37. Radial Deviation
    Moving hand laterally (away from midline); occurs at the wrist
  38. Ulnar Deviation
    Moving hand medially (toward the midline); occurs at the wrist
  39. Internal Rotation
    Medial; rotation with axis of bone toward body (throwing a ball)
  40. External Rotation
    Lateral; rotation with axis of bone away from body (getting into position to throw a ball)
  41. Lateral Flexion
    Occurs at trunk of neck; bending left or right (MUST specify the direction)
  42. Scapular Elevation
    Moving scapula superiorly (shoulder shrug)
  43. Scapular Depression
    Moving scapula inferiorly
  44. Scapular Retraction
    Moving scapula toward spine (like a cable row or going down into push-up position)
  45. Scapular Protraction
    Moving scapula away from spine (like giving a "bear hug")
  46. Retrusion
    Mandible moving posteriorly
  47. Protrusion
    Mandible moving anteriorly
  48. Occlusion
    Elevation of the mandible (closing the mouth)
  49. Mandibular Depression
    Lowering of the mandible (opening the mouth)
Card Set
Introductory Anatomical Terms
Includes planes of movement, terms of movement, and terms of relationship