Reduced blood flow from maternal vessels (HTN, HPN)
Reduced fetal circulation
Normal uterine activity is characterized by contractions occurring every ______ and lasting less than ______
Every 2-5 minutes
Less than 90 seconds
Normal vs Tachysystole
Normal - 5 or less contractions in 10 minutes averaged over a 30 minute window
Tachy - 5 or more contractions in 10 minutes averaged over a 30 minute window
When is an internal fetal scalp monitor contraindicated?
When the mom has HIV
When can a mom with beta strep use internal fetal scalp monitor?
After she is given antibiotics
What are reassuring fetal heart rate patterns?
Normal baseline heart rate between 110 and 160
Presence of accelerations
Absence of decelerations
What are nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns?
Baseline heart rate less than 110 or more than 160
Absent or minimal variability
Late or variable decelerations
Nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns are associated with _____?
Hypoxemia (or hypoxia in later stages)
What mm Hg are contractions and resting tone typically in an internal uterine pressure catheter?
Contractions - 50-85mm Hg
Resting tone - 20mm Hg
What is the one value that cannot be monitored on an external fetal monitor?
Uterine contraction intensity
What monitor is this: High frequency sound waves reflect mechanical action of the fetal heart. It is noninvasive, does not requir rupture of membranes or cervical dilation, and is used during both the antepartum and intrapartum periods
B) Ultrasound transducer
What monitor is this: this instrument monitors frequency and duration of contractions by means of a pressure-sensing device applied to the maternal abdomen. It is used during both the antepartum and intrapartum periods.
What monitor is this: this electrode converts fetal ECG to the FHR. This method can be used only when membranes rupture and the cervix is sufficiently dilated during intrapartum period.
D) Spiral electrode
What monitor is this: this instrument monitors frequency, duration and intensity of contractions. Can be used when membranes rupture and the cervix is sufficiently dilated during the intrapartum period.
C) Intrauterine pressure catheter
What is the definition of variability?
Fluctuations in the baseline FHR
What are the types of variabilty?
Minimal - less than 5bpm
Moderate - 6-25bpm
Marked - more than 25bpm
What is possibly going on with the fetus when the variability goes from moderate to minimal?
Most likely the fetus is sleeping. Wait about 30minutes to intervene.
What variability is ideal to have?
Changes in fetal heart rate patterns
Periodic vs Episodic
P - fluctuations with contractions
E - fluctuations without contractions
An acceleration is classified as an increase of _____ bpm and last for at least _____