How does HIV cause reduced CD4+ T cells?
- Direct HIV-mediated destruction of CD4 T lymphocytes (explained beneath)
- Autoimmune destruction of CD4 T lymphocytes
- Toxicity of viral proteins to CD4 T lymphocytes + marrow suppresstion
- Induction of apoptosis
How is HIV diagnosed?
- ELISA + Western blot: presence of anti-p24 and anti-gp120
- Other tests: CD4:CD8 ratio, viral load, B2 microglobulin
Name 6 classes of drugs for HIV.
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)
- Protease inhibitors
- Fusion inhibitors
- Integrase inhibitors
- Cellular chemokine receptor antagonists
- Therapy should involve combination of drugs
- Note: all NNRTI's interacts with other drugs
What are some infections commonly occuring in HIV patients?
- Lung: CMV, HSC, TB, strep pneumo, H.I, mycobacterium avium, cryptococcus
- CNS: NM, HSC, cryptococcus
- GIT: cryptosporidium, m.avium, candida
- Bones: pneumocystis carinii, m.avium
Name 5 non-infection caused illnesses in HIV patients.
- Drug-induced myocarditis
- Thrombocytopenia & bruising
- HIV-associated dementia