Med Terms Chap 5- GI Tract

  1. ingestion
    intake of food
  2. digestion
    breakdown of food
  3. absorption
    process of extracting nutrients
  4. elimination
    excretion of waste products
  5. alimentary canal
    refers to the tubelike nature of the digestive system, starting with the mouth and continuing in the varying diamters to the anus
  6. peristalsis
    wavelike movement to move food through the tract
  7. gastroenterology
    digestie system speciality
  8. proctologist
    treat disorders of the rectum
  9. oral cavity
    intial breakdown the food mechanically by chewing (mastication) and lubricate food to make swallowing (deglutition) easier
  10. hard palate
    anterior portion
  11. soft palate
    posterior protion
  12. food enters through the mouth or....
    oral cavity
  13. pharynx
  14. nasopharynx
    most superior part of the pharynx (throat)
  15. hypopharynx
    part of the throat, directly adjacent to the oral cavity
  16. esophagus
    muscular, mucus lined tube that extends from the thorat to the stomach
  17. bolus
    masticated lump of food
  18. the muscle that must relax before the food enters the stomach is known by 3 names:
    lower esphogeal sphincter (LES), gastroesophoeal sphincter or the cardiac sphicter
  19. stomach
    expandable vessel
  20. stomach is divided into 3 sections
    fundus, body and pylorus
  21. cardia
    portion of the stomach that surrounds the esophogeal gastric connection
  22. fundus
    area of the stomach that abrupts the diaphragm
  23. corporis
    central part of the stomach
  24. Pyloric sphincter
    regulates the gentle release of food from the stomach into the small intestines
  25. rugae
    ridges or wrinkles of the stomach
  26. chyme
    food mix with gastric juices
  27. parts of the small intestines
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  28. plicae
    multiple circular folds in the small intestines
  29. ileocecal
    valve that exits from the small intestines and the entrance of the colon
  30. cecum
    first part of large intestines
  31. vermiform appendix
    wormlike appendage
  32. adnexa
    accessory structures
  33. bile
    substance formed by the liver which emulsifies or mechanically breaks down fats
  34. bilirubin
    composed from bile, and is the waste product formed by the normal breakdown of hemogloin in the red blood cells
  35. gallbladder
    biles storage location
  36. cholecystokinin
    hormone secreted causing the contraction of the galbladder to move bile out into the cystic duct, then the common bile duct and finally into duodenum
  37. pancreas
    gland that involves the digestion CHO, PRO and lipids
  38. dyspepsia
    feeling of epigastric discomfort (indigestion)
  39. eructation
    release of air from the stomach through the mouth (burp)
  40. halitosis
    bad smelling breath
  41. hermatemesis
    vomiting of blood
  42. hiccup
    involuntary contraction of the digaphram
  43. nausea
    senation that accompanies the urge to vomit but doesnt always lead to it
  44. pyrosis
  45. regurgitation
    return of swallowed food to the mouth
  46. vomiting
    forcible or involuntary emptying of the stomach through the mouth
  47. constipation
    inrequeent, incomplete or delayed bowel movement
  48. diarrhea
    abnormal dicharge of watery, semisolid stool
  49. flatus
  50. hemotochezia
    bright red, frank lower GI bleeding from the rectum
  51. irritable bowel syndrom (IBS)
    digarrhea, gas and or constipation resulting from stress with no underlying disease
  52. melena
    black, tarry stools caused bye the presence of partially digested blood
  53. cleft palate
    failure of the plate to close during the embryotic development
  54. espoghageal atresia
    esophogus that ends in a blind pouch and therefore lacks an opening to the stomach
  55. hirschsprung disease
    congenital absence of normal nervous function in part of the colon
  56. pyloric stenosis
    condition in which the muscle between the stomach and the small intestines narrows or fails to open adequately to allow partially digestd food into the duodenum
  57. aphthous stomatitis
    recurring condition charcaterized by small erosions (ulcers) which appear on the mucous membranes of the mouth (canker sore)
  58. cheilitis
    inflammation of the lips
  59. cheilosis
    abnormal condition of the lips present in riboflavin deficiency
  60. dental caries
  61. dental plaque
    film of matieral that coats the teeth and may lead to dental decay if not removed
  62. gingivitis
    inflammatory dieseas of the gums
  63. herpetic stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) aka cold sore/fever blister
  64. leukoplakia
    condition of white patches tht may appear on the lips and buccal mucosa
  65. malocclusion
    condition of which the teeth do not touch properly when the mouth is closed
  66. peridontal disease
    pathologic condtion of the tissues surrounding the teeth
  67. pyorrhea
    purulent discharge from the tissue surrounding the teeth
  68. achalasia
    impairment of espogheal peristalsis along with lower esophogeal sphincer's inability to relax
  69. dyspagia
    difficulty swallowing that may be due to the obstruction of a motor disorder
  70. gastroesopheal refux disease (GERD)
    flowing back or return of the contents of the stomach to the esophagus caused by inability of the LES to contact normally
  71. gastralgia/gastrodynia
    gastric pain
  72. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  73. pepti ulcer disease (PUD)
    an erosion of the protective mucus lining of the stomach or duodenum (gastric or duodenal ulcer)
  74. anal fissure
    cracklike lesion of the skin around the anus
  75. anorectal abscess
    circumscribed area of inflammation in the anus or rectum, containing pus
  76. appendicitis
    inflammation of the veriform appendix
  77. colitis
    inlfammation of the large intestines
  78. Crohn disease
    inflammation of the ileum or the colon that is idiopathic origin
  79. diverticulitis
    inflammation occurring secondary to the occurrences of diverticulosis
  80. diverticulosis
    development of diverticula, pouches in the lining of the colon
  81. fistula
    abnormal channel between the organs or from an internal organ to the surface of the body
  82. hemorrhoid
    varicose vein in the lower rectum or anus
  83. lleus
  84. inflammatory bowel movement (IBD)
    chronic inflammation of the lining of the intestines charactherized by bleeding and diarrhea
  85. intussesception
    inward telescoping of the intestines
  86. mucositis
    inflammation of the mucous membranes
  87. peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneum that most commpnly occurs when an inflamed appendix ruptures
  88. polyp
    benign growth that may occur in the intestines
  89. proctitis/rectitis
    inflammation of the rectum and the anus
  90. pruritus ani
    common chronic condiiton of itching of the skin surrounding the anus
  91. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon and recutm manifesting with bouts of profuse watery diarrhea
  92. volvulus
    twsting of the intestines
  93. cholangitis
    inflammation of the bile vessels
  94. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  95. choledocholithiasis
    presence of stones in the common bile duct
  96. cholelithiasis
    presence of stone in the gallbladder, sometimes characterized by right upper quadrant pain (biliary colic) with nausea and vomiting
  97. cirrhosis
    chronic degenerative disease of the lover, most commonly associated with alcohol abuse
  98. hepatitis
    Inflammation disease of the liver that is caused by an increasing number of viruses, alcohol, and drugs. Currently named by letter, hepatitis A-G, that means of viral transmission is not the same for each form.
  99. hepatitis A
    Virus transmitted through direct contact with fecally contaminated food
  100. hepatitis B
    virus transmitted through contaminated blood or sexual contact
  101. hepatitis C
    virus transmitted through blood transfusion, percutaneous incoculation, or sharing of infected needles.
  102. jaundice
    yellowing of the skin and scleare (white of the eyes) caused by evaluated levels of bilirubin
  103. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  104. femoral hernia
    protrusion of a loop of intestine through the femoral canal into the groin
  105. hiatal hernia
    protrusion of a portion of the stomach through the diaphragm
  106. incarcerated hernia
    loop of bowel with ends occluded so tat solids cannot pass; herniated bowel can become strangulated.
  107. inguinal hernia
    protrusion of a loop of intestine into the inguinal canal
  108. strangulation
    constriction of a tubular structure, including intestines, leading to impedance of circulation.
  109. umbilical hernia
    protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a weakness in the abdominal wall
  110. cystadenoma
    glandular tumors that are filled with cysts, these are the most common benign tumors in the pancreas
  111. hemangioma
    the most common type of benign tumor, these are tumors of the blood vessels
  112. leiomyoma
    smooth muscle tumor that may occur in the digestive tract
  113. odontogenic tumor
    bengin tumor that arise around the teeth and jaw
  114. polyps, adenomatous or hyperplastic
    adenomatous (growth that arise from glandular tissue, have potential to become malignant) or hyperplastic (generally, small growths that have no tendency to become malignant) tumors occurring throughout the digestive tract. Polyps may be sessile (flat) or pedunculated (having a stalk)
  115. adenocarcinoma
    a malignant tumor of epithelial origin that either originates from the glandular tissue or has a glandular appeearance
  116. hepatocellular carcinoma/hepatoma
    malginant tumors of the epithelial origin that orginate in the liver cells
  117. squamous cells carcinoma
    cancers that have a scalelike appearance
  118. barium enema (BE)
    introduction of a barium sulfate suspension through the rectum for imaging of the lower digestive tract to detect tumors and abnormal.
  119. barium swallow (BaS)
    radiographic imaging done after oral ingestion of a barium sulfate suspension
  120. cholangiography
    radiological procedure that captures images of the common bile vessel through injection of a contrast medium into the bile duct
  121. computeted tomography (CT scan)
    radiographic technique that produces detailed images of "slices" or cross sections of the body
  122. endoscopy
    internal visualization of the body with an endoscope
  123. fluoroscopy
    xray procedure that allows visualization of structures in real time on a monitor screen
  124. manometry
    test that measures the motor function of the esophogus
  125. sonography
    use of high-freq. sound waves to image deep structures of the body
  126. biopsy
    removal and examinaiton of living tissue for diagnostic purposes
  127. gamma-glutamly transferase (GGT)
    blood test to detect increased enzymes that can indicate cirrhosis
  128. stool culture
    fecal exam to test for microorganims in the feces such as worms, bacteria etc
  129. stool guaic, hemoccult test
    fecal specimen exam to detect hidden blood, which may indicate GI bleeding
  130. total bilirubin
    detect jaundice
  131. anatomosis
    new connection created between 2 hollow structures
  132. colostomy
    surgical redirection of the bowel to a stoma, an artificial opening of the abdominal wall
  133. enema
    method of introducing a solution into the rectum for the therapeutic relief on constipation
  134. gastrectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
  135. gastric gavage
    feeding through a tube in the stomach
  136. hemorrhoidectomy
    surgical excision of hemorroids
  137. herniorrhaphy
    hernia repair
  138. herperalimentation
    theraputic use of nutritonal supplements that exceed recommended daily requirements
  139. laparoscopic surgery
    surgery done through several small incisions in the abdominal wall with the aid of an instrument called a laparascope
  140. laparotomy
    any surgical incision in the adbominal wall for the purpose of an operative apprach or for explaoratory purposes
  141. ligation
    tying off a blood vessel or duct
  142. lysis or adhesions
    surgical destruction of adhesions
  143. nasogastric intubation
    placement of a tube from the nose, down the back of the throat, then into the stomach for the purpose of enteral feeding or removing of gastric contents
  144. odontectomy
    removal of a tooth
  145. polyectomy
    removal of a sessile or pedunculated polyp
  146. stomatoplasty
    surgical rempair of the mouth
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Med Terms Chap 5- GI Tract
Med Terms Chap 5- GI Tract