Exam 2

  1. Bone Remodeling
  2. Classification of Bones by Shape

    • Long
    • - longer than they are wide
    • - shaft + two ends
    • - includes most of the limb bones!
    • Short
    • - roughly cube shapes
    • - wrist and ankle bones
    • - sesamoid bones are a specialized type of short bone; forms in a tendon; i.e. patella
    • Flat
    • - thin, flattened, a bit curved
    • - scapulae, sternum, shoulder blades, ribs, most skull bones
    • Irregular
    • - don't fit in elsewhere
    • - vertebrae, hip bones, sphenoid and ethmoid bones
  3. Osteon Structure
    Haversian/Central Canals: central canal of osteon; allow passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers

    Lamella: tube that surrounds central canal; contains collagen fibers that all run in the same direction; adjacent lamella have fibers running in opposite direction

    Lacunae: cavities containing osteocytes, connected by canaliculi
  4. Compare spongy bone and compact bone.
    • Compact Bone
    • - dense bone
    • - contains osteons
    • - collagenous protein fibers and mineral deposits of calcium phosphate salts

    • Spongy Bone
    • - red bone formation occurs in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, vertebrae and in the ends of the long bones
    • - trabeculae help resist stress as much as possible; no osteons
    • - appears more poorly organized than compact bone
  5. Structure and Function of Intervertebral Discs
    • Structure
    • - cushionlike pad made of
    • - nucleus pulposus; gelatinous, gives the disc its elasticity
    • - anulus fibrosus; surrounds NP, limits NP expansion when spine is compressed; binds successive vertebrae together, resists tension in spine, withstands twisting forces

    • Function
    • - shock absorbers
    • - help spine flex, extend, bend laterally
  6. What are abnormal curvatures of the spine?
    scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve)

    kyphosis (hunchback)

    lordosis (swayback)
  7. Curvatures of the Spine
    • Posteriorly Concave Curvatures
    • - cervical
    • - lumbar
    • Posteriorly Convex Curvatures
    • - thoracic
    • - sacral
  8. What are the functions or paranasal sinuses?
    • - lightens the skull
    • - warm and moistens the air (through mucus!)
    • - enhance resonance of voice
  9. Elastic Cartilage
    Where is it found?
    How does it work?
    Where: cartilage of the ear

    How: similar to hyaline cartilages, but contain elastic fibers
  10. Fibrocartilage
    Where is it found?
    How does it work?
    Where: Pubic symphysis

    How: collagen fibers have great tensile strength
  11. Hyaline Cartilage
    Where is it found?
    How it works?
    Where: Tip of the nose, costal cartilage of ribs, articular cartilage of a joint, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage

    How: provides support, flexibility, and resilience (most abundant)
  12. What are the types of skeletal cartilage?
    • 1.) hyaline cartilage
    • 2.) fibrocartilage
    • 3.) elastic cartilage
Card Set
Exam 2
Anatomy and Phys Exam 2