UA Midterm

  1. What is a CBC used to screen for?
    • Anemias.
    • Macrocytic vs microcytic.
  2. What is the name of the 'good' cholesterol?
  3. Diabetes mellitus:
    • Type I: juvenile, or beta cells of pancreas cannot make insulin.
    • Type II: 90% of diabetics... makes more insulin than they know what to do with.
  4. Diabetes insipidis:
    • Has nothing to do with the kidneys... due to ADH (vasopressin) deficiency from the posterior pituitary.
    • Patient is excessively thirsty = diluted urine.
  5. Will ketones or GLU be present in the urine of a patients with diabetes insipidus?
  6. What is the most common color change to urine?
    Red/brown, due to menses.
  7. Orangishe/reddish or orangeish/brownish urine is associated with which disease?
    Ulcerative colitis.
  8. Yellow/brown or green/brown urine indicates a disruption of what?
    • Bile pigments, mainly bilirubin.
    • When shaken, specimen exhibits yellow foam.
  9. Dip sticks TQ:
    Dip for 30 sec, wait for 30 sec, read within 1 min.
  10. What is normal specific gravity?
  11. Normal urine volume:
    600 - 2,000 mL/day.
  12. What is the most common cause of decreased urine production?
    Dehydration (or vomiting, sweating).
  13. Anuria leads to death within 2 days due to the presence of what substance?
  14. Diabetes insipidus:
    • Lack of ADH from the posterior pituitary.
    • Inability to concentrate urine.
  15. True or false: protein is normally found in urine.
    • False!
    • Protein in urine is bad, mm kay?
  16. Which form of strep is ok to find in urine?
    Group B Strep: keeps yeast (fungi) under control.
  17. What is the product of AA metabolism?
    • Urea.
    • Ketones from fatty acid metabolism.
  18. Renin-Angiotensin:
    • Causes blood vessels to constrict.
    • From juxtaglomular cells in the kidney.
    • Increases BP = strong vasoconstrictor.
  19. What is the role of aldosterone in the RAAS system?
    Sodium reabsorption (Na & H2O retention).
  20. Why should RBC's & proteins NOT be found in urine?
    Because the kidneys do not filter RBC's & proteins.
  21. ADH: influences water loss.
    • Released from the posterior pituitary.
    • Made in the hypothalamus.
  22. TQ:
    Many epithelial cells in samples with kidneys stones...
  23. What are the 3 types of normal constituents found in urine?
    (dissolved solids normally found in urine).
    • 1. Nitrogenous waste products: urea, uric acid, creatinine.
    • 2. Electrolytes: sodium chloride, sulfates, phosphates.
    • 3. Pigments: from bile compounds & food.
  24. Case study: Gout is in the joint space, affecting big toe. Patient is overweight, & ate a meat pie with a bunch of beer.
    • Blood: high uric acid.
    • Urine: low uric acid.
  25. Name the 6 abnormal constituents found in urine:
    • 1. Glucose.
    • 2. Albumin.
    • 3. Blood.
    • 4. Ketones.
    • 5. WBC's.
    • 6. Casts.
  26. Case study: sore throat, goes away, blood in pee 2 weeks later...
    • Acute glomerulonephritis.
    • Most common kidney disease.
    • Strep goes down & punches holes in the kidneys, may also go to mitral valve.
Card Set
UA Midterm