What is a CBC used to screen for?
- Macrocytic vs microcytic.
What is the name of the 'good' cholesterol?
- Type I: juvenile, or beta cells of pancreas cannot make insulin.
- Type II: 90% of diabetics... makes more insulin than they know what to do with.
- Has nothing to do with the kidneys... due to ADH (vasopressin) deficiency from the posterior pituitary.
- Patient is excessively thirsty = diluted urine.
Will ketones or GLU be present in the urine of a patients with diabetes insipidus?
What is the most common color change to urine?
Red/brown, due to menses.
Orangishe/reddish or orangeish/brownish urine is associated with which disease?
Yellow/brown or green/brown urine indicates a disruption of what?
- Bile pigments, mainly bilirubin.
- When shaken, specimen exhibits yellow foam.
Dip sticks TQ:
Dip for 30 sec, wait for 30 sec, read within 1 min.
What is normal specific gravity?
Normal urine volume:
600 - 2,000 mL/day.
What is the most common cause of decreased urine production?
Dehydration (or vomiting, sweating).
Anuria leads to death within 2 days due to the presence of what substance?
- Lack of ADH from the posterior pituitary.
- Inability to concentrate urine.
True or false: protein is normally found in urine.
- Protein in urine is bad, mm kay?
Which form of strep is ok to find in urine?
Group B Strep: keeps yeast (fungi) under control.
What is the product of AA metabolism?
- Ketones from fatty acid metabolism.
- Causes blood vessels to constrict.
- From juxtaglomular cells in the kidney.
- Increases BP = strong vasoconstrictor.
What is the role of aldosterone in the RAAS system?
Sodium reabsorption (Na & H2O retention).
Why should RBC's & proteins NOT be found in urine?
Because the kidneys do not filter RBC's & proteins.
ADH: influences water loss.
- Released from the posterior pituitary.
- Made in the hypothalamus.
Many epithelial cells in samples with kidneys stones...
What are the 3 types of normal constituents found in urine?
(dissolved solids normally found in urine).
- 1. Nitrogenous waste products: urea, uric acid, creatinine.
- 2. Electrolytes: sodium chloride, sulfates, phosphates.
- 3. Pigments: from bile compounds & food.
Case study: Gout is in the joint space, affecting big toe. Patient is overweight, & ate a meat pie with a bunch of beer.
- Blood: high uric acid.
- Urine: low uric acid.
Name the 6 abnormal constituents found in urine:
- 1. Glucose.
- 2. Albumin.
- 3. Blood.
- 4. Ketones.
- 5. WBC's.
- 6. Casts.
Case study: sore throat, goes away, blood in pee 2 weeks later...
- Acute glomerulonephritis.
- Most common kidney disease.
- Strep goes down & punches holes in the kidneys, may also go to mitral valve.