Diathrosis - Lots of movement. Synovial joint. (shoulder)
3 types of Fibrous joints.
Suture - B/w bones of skull
Syndesmosis - B/w long bones. (fib&tib, fem&hum)
Gomphosis - binds teeth to mandible
3 types of cartilage joints.
Synchondrosis - bones conn. by hyaline. ribs.
Sympheses - bones seperated by wedge or pad. vertebrae.
Most common structural joint?
What is a meniscus?
Pad of fib. cartilage b/w bones synovial joint.
Luxation vs subluxation?
Sublux: Partial dislocate
Flexion vs. Extension vs. Hyperextension?
Flex: curl. reduce angle.
Extension: increase angle.
Hyper: extend past anatomical position.
Abduciton vs. Adduciton?
Ab: away from body
Add: toward body
Medial vs. Lateral rotation?
Medial: inward rotation (arm)
Lateral: outward rotation (rotate arm out, palm out)
Pronation vs. Supination?
Pro: turn hand palm face back
Supi: palm face front
Inversion vs. Eversion?
Twist the foot so sole is facing inward/outward.
Dorsiflexion vs. Plantar flexsion?
Dorsi: ankle flexion
Planter: ankle extension
What is the movement of thumb and pinky coming together make like they grasp?
Protraction vs. Retraction?
Pro: to move part of body anteriorly (jaw move forward)
Retract: bring it back
Jaw dropping. what movement?
Example of lateral flexion?
Neck side to side.
What is a non-axial joint? Like what?
Gliding joint. Clavicle.
C) Hinge joint
What kinda joint is the thumb? What kinda axial?
Saddle joint. Biaxial.
What kinda axial joint is the shoulder?
What is bursitis?
Inflame of busa (fluid sac b/w tendon and bone)
What is Tendonitis?
Inflamed tendons. Gliding becomes painful.
What is Arthritis?
What is osteoarthritis?
Degradation of cartilage and bone in joints.
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
What is arthritis?
Rheumatic diseases that affect joints.
Crystals or uric acid form.
What's a muscle agonist?
What's a muscle antagonist?
Muscle that opposes action.
What's a muscle synergist?
Muscle that helps contract.
What does a "rectus" muscle mean?
What does a transversus or oblique muscle look like?
Run across or diagonally the long axis of body.
What does externus or superficialis muscles mean?
Visible at surface.
What does internus or profundus muscles mean?
What are extrinsic and intrinsic muscles?
Ex: position or stabalize organ
Intrinsic: muscle entirely within organ.
Longus vs. Longissimus muscles?
Long and Longest.
What do "teres" muscles look like?
Long and round.
What do you expect from a "brevis" muscle?
Abductor of the arm?
Medial rotation of the arm?
Subscapularis and teres major.
What's the Ischiocavernosus muscle for?
Tighten the anus/vagina, dick up straight.
What is the Bulbospongiosus muscle for?
Males: coveres the head of the dick
Females: covers vesti bulbs
Origin and Insertion: Genioglossus
Mandible to the tongue.
Origin and Insertion: Styloglossus
Styliod process to lips.
Origin and Insertion: Hyoglossus
Hyoid to side of tongue.
Origin and Insertion: Stylohyoid
Styloid process to hyoid process.
Origin and Insertion: Thyrohyoid
Thyroid cartilage of larynx to hyoid bone.
Origin and Insertion: Sternothyroid
Manubrium to thyroid cartilage.
Origin and Insertion: Sternohyoid
Manubrium of sternum to hyoid.
Origin and Insertion: Mylohyoid
Mandible to body of hyoid.
Origin and Insertion: Omohyoid
Upper border of scapula to hyoid.
Origin and Insertion: Sternocleidomastoid
Medial of clavicle to temporal bone.
Origin and Insertion: Iliocostalis
Sternum to ribs.
Origin and Insertion: Longissimus
Transverse process to transverse process.
Origin and Insertion: Pubococcygeus
Back of the pupis to sacrum and coccyx.
Origin and Insertion: Iliococcygeus
Ischial spine to cocyx.
Origin and Insertion: Ischiococcygeus
Ischial spine and coccyx and sacrum
Origin and Insertion: Deltoid
Clavicle, Acromion, scapula to humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Pectoralis major
Clavicle and sternum to humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Pectoralis minor
3-5 ribs to scapula.
Origin and Insertion: Coracobrachialis
Scapula to humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Subclavius
1st rib to subclavian groove of clavicle.
Origin and Insertion: Serratus anterior
8-9 ribs to scapula
Origin and Insertion: Supraspinatous
supra fossa of scalpula to greater tuberlcle of humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Infraspinatous
Infraspinatous fossa to humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Subscapularis
Subscapular fossa to lesser tubercle of humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Teres Major
Inferior angle of scapula to intertubercular of humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Teres Minor
Lateral border of scapula to greater tubercle of humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Rhomboid Major
T2-T5 to medial border of scapula.
Origin and Insertion: Rhomboid Minor
C7 to T1 to scapula.
Origin and Insertion: Latissimus Dorsi
Lower back to humerus.
Origin and Insertion: Biceps Brachii
Scapula/Supraglenoid tubercle to radial tuberosity.
Origin and Insertion: Triceps Brachii
Scapula/humerus to olecranon
Origin and Insertion: Brachialis
Humerus to ulna
Origin and Insertion: Brachioradialis
Humerus to radius
What are skeletal muscle surrounded by?
What surrounds muscle fascicle?
What surrounds muscle fiber?
What surrounds myofibril?
Actin is thin or dark?
Thin. A bands are dArk.
What kind of tissue covers periosteum?
What are myofibrils made out of?
What is the section from Z-line to Z-line called? What is attached to it?
Sacromere. Thin Filaments.
What is connected to the M-line?
What makes up the I band
What makes up the A band.
Thick, dArk filaments
What makes up the H-zone?
The region in the middle that doesn't contain myosin heads.
What changes in length when muscle contracts? What stays the same?
A-band stays the sAme...everything else moves.
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum? What is a T-tubule?
Surrounds myofibril. T-tubule is part of the "triad".
What is the ion that moves across the muscle membranes?
3 phases of a twitch?
What is a twitch?
Single relax-contract sequence.
What is wave summation when talking about muscle tension?
Each twitch causes tension, when the twitches come fast enough where the previous twitch doesn't have time to go back to it's normal state, the tension "adds" up until it reaches a plateau.
What is a motor unit?
All the muscle fibers that are controlled by one neuron.
Complete vs. incomplete tetanus (muscle tension)
The wave chart for complete looks like a smooth hill rising to the top. Incomplete looks jagged and doesn't reach the top.
How are muscle fibers "recruited?"
When a muscle contracts, it activates the smallest motor units. If you need it to contract harder, more/bigger motor units activate larger muscle fibers.
What is muscle tone?
Some muscle has motor neurons that are always on, not enough to move the muscle, but enough to tense it. The resting tension is muscle tone.
Isotonic vs. Isometric contractions.
Tonic: length changes (picking something up)
Metric: length doesn't change (hold head up)
Isotonic contractions: Concentric vs. Eccentric
Con: shortens (curls)
Ecc: lengthen (fighting gravity on the curl)
Replenish ATP. Short, Med, Long ways?
What is muscle fatigue?
Slow vs. intermediate vs. fast muscle fibers?
Slow: on the smaller side, more capillaries, more O2, more ATP
Inter: looks kinda the same as slow
Fast: Large, big glycogen reserves, over and done easily.
What is hyperplasia?
Number of cell growth more than normal.
Hypertrophy vs. atrophy
Hyper: muscle fibers get larger in diameter (bodybuilding)
Atrophy: smaller due to no use.
What is muscle dystrophy?
Group of diseases that weaken muscle.
What makes up the CNS? PNS?
CNS: brain and spinal cord
PNS: everything else
What is the mylien sheath for?
Increases the speed of the msg through neurons.
What makes the mylien sheath in CNS? PNS? (COPS)
S: schwan cells
What is neurilemma?
Outer most layer of schwan cells.
What are nodes of Ranvier?
The spaces between the myelin sheath.
White matter vs. Gray matter.
White is bc they're myelin covered. So they pass info along.
Gray is unmyelinated, so they process info.
Neuron helping cells? (O-AME)
O: oligodendrocytes (myelin)
A: astrocytes (BBB)
M: microglia (macrophage)
E: ependimo cells (ventricles)
What ions are inside or outside of the cell?
Out: Ca++, Cl, Na+
Action vs. Graded potentials?
Action: All or nothing. Spreads like wildfire.
Graded: Makes +, but doesn't reach the threshold yet. Local stimulation.
What ions triggers the AP?
What is depolarization of a cell and what ion does this?
Turn on. Na+.
What is repolarization of a cell and what ion does this?
Turn off. K+.
What is hyperpolarization of a cell and what ion does this?
Release K+ past the resting point.
Where do AP start?
What is multiple sclerosis?
AutoImmune disease that attack myelin sheaths of spine and brain.
Where do action and graded potentials occur?
Graded: Cell body
Electrical vs. Chemical synapse
Electrical: Physical connections. Get channels that allow ions to move between.
Chemical: Has a gap junction that neurotransmitters have to jump to cause an AP.
Temporal vs. spatial summation?
Temporal: single neuron
EPSP vs. IPSP
(excitatory postsynaptic potential) vs. (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
EPSP: graded depolarization
IPSP: graded hyperpolarization (this brings the cell past it's resting potential, thus requiring a bigger than normal stimulus to get it to threshhold, that's why it's called inhibitory. To do this, what ion has to move and it what direction?
What neurotransmitter is associated with pain signals?
What are the excite/inhibit neurotransmitters?
Ach and NE are the only excites. Everything else is inhibit.
Remember a teen getting excited. Acne occurs. (Ach-NE)
What is scoliosis? Kyphosis? Lordosis?
Curving of the spine. Hunchback. Curve in lower back.
What changes in muscle contraction? Actin or Myosin?
What bands contracts in muscle contraciton?
I + H band.
What do you give to combat Myestinia Gravis?
THe cori cycle?
Liver converts lactic acid to pyruvic acid so when TCA cycle hits...boom. ATP.
What's more harmful to muscle, running down or uphill?