Micro Test #3

  1. Communicable Disease
    • Disease that can spread from one host to another. Describes most diseases.
    • Examples HIV and TB
  2. Contagious Disease
    • Disease that can be easily spread
    • Example Chicken Pox
  3. Non-Communicable Disease
    • Disease that is not contagious
    • You get these diseases mostly with lifestyle choices such as alcohol and drugs
  4. Epidemic
    • Occurance of disease that affects many people in a short time.
    • Example right now is Cholera in Hati
  5. Pandemic
    • Worldwide Epidemic
    • Example HIV
  6. Endemic Disease
    • Disease consistently present in a certain area
    • Example is TB in Mexico
  7. Local Infection
    Disease that affects just one organ or general area in the body
  8. Systemic Infection
    • Infection that affects many organs or tissues in the body.
    • Example Diabetes
  9. Herd Immunity
    Describes when a large portion of the population has been vaccinated or has immunity again a certain disease so it protects the people who are not vaccinated because chains of infection will be disrupted when a large part of the community is immune to it.
  10. Acute Disease
    Develops rapidly, but is a short duration.
  11. Chronic Disease
    Develops slowly and lasts a long time.
  12. Latent
    Disease that can become inactive and them become active again at a later stage in life.
  13. What are the 4 stages of a disease?
    • 1. Incubation - the time from when your exposed to a disease until you develop symptoms.
    • 2. Prodromal Period - period of mild general symptoms before the onset of specific symptoms. (not all diseases have this)
    • 3. Illness - acutal sickness
    • 4. Convalescnece - on your way back down to normal, but not normal yet.
  14. 1. Resevior

    2. Vector

    3. Nosociomial
    1. Animate or Inanimate source or organisms.

    2. Carry diseases from one host to another.

    3. Hospital accquired infection.
  15. Koch's Postulates
    Desribes the cause and effect relationship between pathogens and the disease it causes.

    • 1. Pathogen has to be present in EVERY person that has the disease and can't be present in people who don't have the disease.
    • 2. You have to isolate the thing that you suspect is causing the disease in a pure culture and inspect under microscope.
    • 3. You then take the suspected organism and inject it into a healthy species and it has to come down with the same pathogen the orginal ones had.
    • 4. Then the same original pathogen has to be recovered from this animal as well.
  16. Disinfectant
    Used on nonliving things to kill vegetative pathogens (kills everything but the spores)
  17. Antiseptic
    Used to kill vegatative pathogens but is used on animate objects (living tissues)
  18. Chemotherapeutic
    Chemical agent such as an antibiotic used to kill diseases in a living body.
  19. Degerming Agent
    mechanical removal of organisms (soap, alcohol wipes)
  20. Broad spectrum antibiotic
    Used to tread a wide variety of disease-causing bacteria.
  21. Narrow Spectrum antibiotics
    Effective against only specific families of bacteria.
  22. Methods that can kill Microorganisms
    • Denaturation - collapsing hydrogen bonds of bacteria. The whole thing collapses and kills the nucleic acid and proteins.
    • Can do this by Moist Heat, Boiling and Autoclaving (heat under pressure)

    Pasteurization - Heating up to 72 degrees cenigrade such as in milk so it won't loose its flavor...boiling is 100 degrees centrigrade.

    Gas Sterilization - putting the organisms in a chamber with gas, kills everything including spores.

    Oxidation - hydrogen peroxide, bleach, dry heat and UV rays.

    Cell Wall Damage - weakens the cell wall. Lysozomes and antibiotics.

    Cell Membrane Damage - antifungal drugs. Makes cell spit out all its insides.

    Interference with Protein Sythesis - stop peptide bond formation, change shape of m-RNA so it can't be read, or interfere with attachment of t-RNA to m-RNA.

    Interference with Nucleic Acid - antiviral meds. Harshest.
Card Set
Micro Test #3
Third Test