POLS Exam 3

  1. Interest group
    Organizations that seek to achieve some of their goals by influencing government decision making
  2. Social capital
    The ways in which our lives are improved in many ways by social connections
  3. Pluralist Theory
    A theory that hold policy making is a competition among diverse interest groups that ensure the representation of individual interests
  4. Elite Theory
    A theory that holds that a group of wealthy, educated individuals wields most political power
  5. Solidary Incentives
    Motivation to join an interest group based on the companionship and the satisfaction derived from socializing with others that it offers
  6. Purposive Incentives
    Motivation to join an interest group based on the belief in the group�s cause from an ideological or a moral standpoint
  7. Economic Incentives
    Motivation to join an interest group because the group works for policies that will provide members with material benefits
  8. Political Action Committee (PAC)
    A group that raises and spends money in order to influence the outcome of an election
  9. Umbrella organization
    Interest groups that represent collective groups of industries or corporations
  10. Collective Goods
    Outcomes shared by the general public; also called public groups
  11. Free Rider Program
    The phenomenon of someone deriving benefit from others� actions
  12. Rational choice theory
    The idea that from an economic perspective it is not rational for people to participate in collective action when they can secure the collective good without participating
  13. Lobby
    To communicate directly with policy makers on the interest group�s behalf
  14. Issue network
    The fluid web of connections among those concerned about a policy and those who create and administer the policy
  15. Iron triangle
    The interaction of mutual interests among members of Congress, executives agencies, and organized interests during policy making
  16. Climate Control
    The practice of using public outreach to build favorable public opinion of the organization
  17. Electioneering
    Working to influence the elections of candidates who support the organization�s issues
  18. Political Party
    An organization that recruits, nominates, and elects party members to office in order to control the government
  19. Platform
    The formal statement of a party�s principle and policy objectives
  20. Responsible Party Model
    Political scientists� view that a function of a party is to offer a clear choice to voters by establishing priorities or policy stances different from those of rival parties
  21. Party In the Electorate
    Individuals who identify with or tend to support a party
  22. Party Identifiers
    Individuals who identify themselves as a member of one party or the other
  23. Independent
    Often used as a synonym for an unaffiliated voter
  24. Great Depression
    Between 1929 and 1939, a times of devastating economic collapse and personal misery for people around the world
  25. Party Organization
    • The formal party apparatus, including committees, party leaders, conventions, and workers
    • Loyal opposition
    • A role that the party out of power plays, highlighting its objection to policies and priorities of the government in power
  26. Soft Money Loophole
    Supreme Court interpretation of campaign finance law that enables political parties to raise unlimited funds for party-building activities such as voter registration drives and get-out-the-vote (GOTV) efforts
  27. Party in Government
    The partisan identification of elected leader in local, county, state, and federal government
  28. Divided Government
    The situation that exists when Congress is controlled by one party and the Presidency by the other
  29. Party System
    The categorization of the number and competitiveness of political parties in a polity
  30. Realignment
    A shift in party allegiances or electoral support
  31. Populism
    A philosophy supporting the rights and empowerment of the masses as opposed to elites
  32. Spoils system
    The practice of rewarding political supporters with jobs
  33. Political Machine
    Big-city organization that exerted control over many aspects of life and lavishly rewarded supporters
  34. Patronage
    System in which a party leader rewarded political supporters with jobs or government contracts in exchange for their support of the party
  35. New Deal
    FDR�s broad social welfare program in which government would bear the responsibility of providing a �safety net� to protect the weakest members of society
  36. New Deal Coalition
    The group composed of southern Democrats, northern city dwellers, immigrants, the poor, Catholics, labor union members, blue-collar workers, African-Americans, and women that elected FDR to the presidency four times
  37. Dealignment
    the situation in which fewer voters support the two major political parties, instead identifying themselves as independent, or splitting their ticket between candidates from more than one party
  38. Ticket Splitting
    The situation in which voters vote for candidates from more than one party
  39. Candidate Committees
    Organizations that candidates form to support their individual elections
  40. Third party
    a party organized as opposition or alternative to the existing parties in a two-party system
  41. Proportional Representation System
    An electoral structure in which political parties win the number of parliamentary seats equal to the percentage of the vote the party receives
  42. Primary Election
    An election in which voters choose the party�s candidates who will run in the later general election
  43. Candidate-centered Campaign
    A campaign in which an individual seeking election, rather than an entire party slate, is the focus
  44. Unilateralism
    One-sided action, usually in foreign policy
  45. GOTV
  46. General Election
    An election that determines which candidates win the offices being sought
  47. Caucus
    Meeting of party members held to select delegates to the national convention
  48. Open Primary
    A type of primary in which both parties� ballots are available in the voting booth, and voters select one on which to register their preferences
  49. Closed Primary
    A type of primary in which voting is a party�s primary is limited to members of that party
  50. Super Tuesday
    The Tuesday in early march on which the most primary elections were held, many of them in southern states; provided the basis for Super-Duper Tuesday in 2008
  51. Runoff Election
    A follow-up election held when no candidates receives the majority of votes case in the original elections
  52. Instant Runoff Election
    A special runoff election in which the computerized voting machine simulates the elimination of last-place vote-getters
  53. Referendum
    An election in which voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by the state legislature
  54. Initiative
    A citizen-sponsored proposal that can result in new or amended legislation or a state constitutional amendment
  55. Proposition
    A proposed measure placed on the ballot in an initiative election
  56. Recall
    A proposed election in which voters can removes officeholders before their term is over
  57. Australian Ballot
    A secret ballot prepared by the government, distributed to all eligible voters, and, when balloting is completed, counted by government officials in an unbiased fashion, without corruption or regard to individual preferences
  58. Chad
    A ready-made perforation on a punch card ballot
  59. Party-column ballot
    A ballot that organizes the candidates by political party
  60. Coattail effect
    The phenomenon by which candidates running for a lower-level office such as city council benefit in an election from the popularity of a top-of-ticket nominee
  61. Office-block ballot
    A type of ballot that arranges all of the candidates for a particular office under the name of that office
  62. Absentee Voting
    Casting a ballot in advance by mail in situations where illness, travel, or other circumstances precent boters from voting in their precinct
  63. Campaign Consultant
    Paid professional who specializes in the overall management of political campaigns or an aspect of campaigns
  64. Campaign Manager
    A professional who duties comprise a variety of strategic and managerial task, from fund-raising to staffing a campaign
  65. Campaign Strategy
    Blueprint for the campaign, including a budget and fund-raising plan, advertising strategy, and staffing plan
  66. Fund-raising Consultant
    A professional who works with candidates to identify likely contributors to the campaign and arrange events and meetings with donors
  67. Media consultant
    A professional who brings the campaign message to voters by creating handouts and all forms of media ads
  68. Independent Expenditures
    Outlays by PAC�s and other, typically for advertizing for or against a candidate, but uncoordinated with a candidate�s campaign
  69. 527
    A tax-exempt group that raises money for political activities, much like those allowed under the soft money loophole
  70. Turnout Rate
    The proportion of eligible voters who actually voted
  71. Prospective Voting
    A method of evaluating candidates in which voters focus on candidates positions on issues important to them and vote for the candidates who best represent their views
  72. Salient
    Having resonance, in relation to a voting issue, reflecting intense interst
  73. Incumbency
    The situation of already holding the office that is up for reelection
  74. Voter Fatigue
    The condition in which voters grow tired of all the candidates by the time Election Day arrives, and may thus be less likely to vote
  75. Rational Abstention Thesis
    A theory that some individuals decide the cost of voting are not worth the effort when compared to the benefits
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POLS Exam 3
American Democracy Now, KSU, POLS exam 3