hb2 week 2, forearm

  1. How many carpal bones are there?
    8 (two rows)
  2. Proximal row of carpals (from lateral-->medial)
  3. Distal row of carpals (from lateral-->medial)
  4. What articulation allows movement of the elbow to flex/extend forearm?
    Monoplanar hinge joint between olecranon (of ulna) and trochlea (of humerus)
  5. Does the ulna-humerus joint allow rotation?
    No, ulna cannot rotate
  6. What joint at the write connects the forearm to the hand?
    The joint between Radius and carpal bones
  7. What are the joints that connect the radius and ulna?
    Proximal and distal radio-ulnar joints
  8. What is the membrane between the radius and ulna?
    Interosseus membrane
  9. What joins the carpal and metacarpals bones?
    carpometacarpal joint
  10. Where does the hand articulate with the fingers?
    metacarpo phalangeal joint (MP joints)
  11. What are the joints between the phalanges?
    interphalangeal joints (IP joints)-->proximal (PIP) and distal (DIP)
  12. Annular ligament
    Proximal radio-ulnar joint, connect radius and ulna at elbow
  13. Is there a PIP in the thumb?
    No, only CMC, MP, IP
  14. How many bones are involved in the wrist jonit?
  15. Where does the Brachial artery come from
    It comes from the Axillary artery after the border of teres majot
  16. What does the Brachial artery become in the forearm?
    Branches into radial and Ulnar arteries
  17. What structures are in the antecubital fossa?
    Tendon of biceps brachi, Brachial artery, median nerve
  18. What is lateral to the Brachial artery in the antecubital fossa?
    Tendon of bicpes brachi
  19. What is medial to the Brachial artery in the antecubital fossa?
    Median nerve
  20. Which palmar arch is a continuation of the ulnar artery?
    The superficial (more distal) palmar arch
  21. What are the connections from the subclavian vein?
    It is joined by the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic trunk (on both sides) then the right and left brachiocephalic trunks merge to form the superior vena cava
  22. What bone is responsible for pronation/supination?
    Radius rolls over ulna, since the hand is connected to the radius, the hand rotates also
  23. What is indicative of tendernaess in the anatomical snuffbox
    fracture of the scaphoid bone
  24. TFCC
    articular caritlage that hold the radius and ulna (head of ulna) together at the wrist
  25. Allen's test
    occlude radial artery at the wrist for several minutes to cehck for the collateral circulation of the ulnar artery
  26. What migh tbe damaged if you try to place an IV in the cephalic vein at the wrist?
    radial nerve
  27. What nerve is responsible for elbow extension?
    radial nerve
  28. What provides sensation to the dorsum of the hand?
    radial nerve
  29. What nerves serves most of the flexor pronator group in forearm?
    median n
  30. What nerve supplies the thenar muscles and the radial palmar side of the hand?
    median n
  31. What nerve supplies the instrinsic muscles of the hand?
  32. What could be injured with a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus?
    anterior circumflex humeral artery (could cause aseptic necrosis of humerus)
  33. What could be injured by a spiral fracture of the humerus?
    Radial nerve
  34. what could be injured by a supracondylar fracture?
    Brachial artery (could cause forearm ischemia)
  35. What nerve can be injured as a result of a medial condylar fracture?
    Ulnar nerve
  36. What deficits would you expect with a fracture of the spiral groove?
    wrist drop and inability to extend arm
  37. What nerve may be injured with a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus?
  38. What would a possible clinical sign of axillary nerver (C5 and C6) injury?
    atrophy of the deltoid, should er is flattened in appeared, loss of sensation may occur on lateral side of arm
  39. How do you test for deltoid function (axillary nerve function)?
    Abduct against resistance starting from approximately 15degrees
  40. Lack of sensation on the tip of the index finger indicates injury to what nerve?
    median nerve
  41. Complete fracture of the distal part of the radius is most common fracture of forearm, results in what?
    radius displaced dorsally and comminuted, often ulnar styloid is avulsed, clinical sign is dinner fork deformity
  42. Lack of sensation on the little finger indicates damage to the what nerve?
    ulnar nerve
  43. what is a common site of venipuncture?
    median cubital vein in antecubital fossa
  44. Deltoid innervation (roots)
    axillary nerve (C5*, C6)
  45. Supraspinatus innervation (roots)
    suprascapular nerver (C4, C5*, C6)
  46. Infra spinatus innervation (roots)
    suprascapular nerve ( C5*, C6)
  47. Teres minor innervation (roots)
    axillary nerve (C5*, C6)
  48. Teres major innervation (roots)
    lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6*)
  49. Subscapularis innervation (roots)
    upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6*, C7)
  50. Upper Brachial plexus injury (C5, C6) symptoms
    paralysis of shoulder and arm, upper limb with adducted shoulder, medially rotated arm and extended elbow
  51. Chronic microtrauma to the superior trunk of brachial plexus (carrying a heavy backpack) can produce...
    motor and sensory deficits in the distribution of the musculocutaneous (coracobrachialis, biceps, brachialis) and radial nerves
  52. Inferior brachial plexus injury less common) can result when limb is pulled supriorly, can result in
    C8 and T1 inury resulting in claw hand
  53. Best place to compress the brachial atery to control hemorrhage
    near middle of atm, so ulnar and radial arteries still recieve sufficient blood through the anastomoses to supply elbow and forearm
  54. Biceps tendinitis usually occurs from the _____ head of the biceps
    long, tendon enclosed in synovial sheath, moves back and forth in the interturbercular groove can cause inflammation of the tendon
  55. Does rupture of the biceps tendon result in complet detachment?
    No it has two heads, the muscle will be displaced distally on the arm
  56. Injusry to muscolocutanous nerve results in paralysis of _______, _____, _____, and this motion deficit
    coracobrachialis, brachialis, biceps---results in decreased flexion of elbow and supination of forearm
  57. Injury to the radial nerve superior to the branches to the triceps brachii results in
    paralysis of triceps, brachioradialis, supinator and extensor muscles of wrist
  58. When the radial nerve is injured in the radial groove, these muscles are mostly affected
    posterior compartment (extensor/supinator) muscles of the forearm
  59. What is the clinical sign of wrist drop associated with?
    radial nerve injury
  60. Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
    painful musculoskeletal condition causing pain over the lateral epicondyle
  61. Mallet or baseball finger
    sudden severe tension on a long extensor tendon, results from DIP suddenly being forced into extreme flexion when tendon is attempting to extend distal phalynx, result is inability to extend DIP
  62. Synovial cyst of the wrist
    nontender cystic swelling on dorsum of hand, close to synovial sheaths, common site is the distall attachment of ECR Brevis
  63. Dupuytren contracture of palmar fascia
    progressive shortenting and thickening of fibrosis of palmar fascia and aponeuorsis, results in pulling of the 4th and 5th fingers into partial flexion at MP and PIP
  64. Hand infections
    Infection of the hand can result in pus accumulation in the thenar, hypothenar or adductor compartments
  65. What innervates the lumbricals?
    1 and 2 are median nerve, 3 and 4 are ulnar
  66. How many interossei are there and what innervated them?
    7, ulnar nerve
  67. Palmar interosseus muscles do what motion of phalanges? How many are there?
    ADduction (PAD), 3
  68. Dorsal interosseus muscles are responsible for what motion of the phalanges? How many are there?
    ABduction (DAB), 4
  69. Tenosynovitis
    Inflammation of the tendon and synovial sheath, if cuase dby infection usually remains contained in the finger by separate synovial sheath
  70. Superficial palmar arch
    direct continuation of ulnar artery, superficial to palmar tendons
  71. Deep palmar arch
    Direct continuation of radial artery, deep to long flexor tendons
  72. Common palmar digital arteries
    come off the superficial palmar arch
  73. Proper palmar digital arteries
    come off of common palmar digital arteries (run alongside 2nd -5th fingers)
  74. Why might it be necessary to compress brachial artery for complicated hand injury surgeries?
    to maintian bloodless surgical field, many communicating branches from ulnar and radial arteries
  75. How many tendons pass through carpal tunnel?
  76. What is in danger of being cut in Carpal Tunnel release surgery?
    the recurrent branch of the median nerve
  77. What happens with injury to the median nerve at the wrist?
    paralysis of thenar muscles and first two lumbricals, impossible to oppose the thumb and control fine movements of 2nd and 3rd digits
  78. Median Nerve at the elbow results in
    loss of flexion of the PIP, DIP and MP joints (MP becuase of nedian nerve supply to the 1st and 2nd lumbricals
  79. Ape hand deformity
    refers to deformity in which thumb movements limited to flexion and extension, median nerve injury at elbow
  80. Possible sites of Ulnar nerve injury
    posterior to medial epicondyle (most common), cubital fossa formed by tendinous arch, wrist, hand
  81. Ulnar nerve injury at the elbow or wrist
    Inability to fully flex wrist, wrist is drawn toward the radial side by FCR, difficulty to make a fist
  82. Claw hand
    characteristic presenation of ulnar nerve injury
  83. Dislocation of the AC joint
    AC joint is weak and easily injured, "shoulder separation" severe when both the AC and coracoclavicular ligaments are torn-->causes shoulder to separate from clavicle and fall because of weight of upper limb
  84. Dislocation of the Glenohumeral joint
    commonly dislocated (anteriorly most common) caused by excessive extension and lateral rotation of humerus, flexor and adductor muscles pull humeral head anterosuperiorly
  85. Calcification of supraspinatus tendon
    inflammation and calcification of the subacromial burse--pain and tenderness, limiation of movement of glenohumeral joint (abduction of GH joint is painful at 50-130 degress)
  86. Rotator cuff injuries
    Cannot initiate abduction, commonly injured during repetitive use (throwing and racquet sports), usually due to recurrent inflammation, commonly humeral head can impinge on coracoacromial arch
  87. What structure lies deep to the anatomical snuff box?
    radial artery
  88. What is the sensory area that is most indicative of radial nerve injury?
    dorsum of hand (between thumb and index finer)
  89. What results in greater deficit, proximal or distal nerve inury?
  90. What is the common origin of the forearm flexor pronator group? What originates there?
    medial epicondyle, Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi unlaris, palmaris longus
  91. What muscles do flexion of the fingers? What nerves supply them?
    flexor digitorum superficialis (median), flexor digitorum ulnaris (median for index and middle, ulnar for ring and little)
  92. What muscles perform forearm pronation? What nerves supply them?
    Pronator quadratus (median nerve), Pronator teres (median nerve)
  93. What is the common point of origin for the forearm extensors?
    lateral epincondyle of humerus, Extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis long and brevis, extensor digitorum communus, supinator, extensor digiti minimi
  94. What are the two extensors for individual phalanges?
    extesnor digiti minimi, extensor indicis propius
  95. What are the thumb extensors?
    Extensor pollicis long and brevis, abductor pollicis longus
  96. What is the origin/insertion of the supinator muscle?
    originates from lateral epicondyle of humerus and crest of ulna, inserts on the lateral posterior and anterior surfaces of the proximal thrid of the radius
  97. What is the origin/insertion of Brachioradialis?
    originates on the proximal 2/3 of humerus and inserts on the lateral surface of the radius
  98. What nerve supplies brachioradialis?
  99. What 3 muscles perform forearm supination?
    Supinator, Brachioradialis, Biceps (the strongest supinator)
  100. What innervates adductor pollicis?
    Ulnar nerve
  101. All the thenars are innervated by the median nerve except which one?
    adductor pollicis (median nerve)
  102. the only hand surgeon to release his own carpal tunnel
    Dr. Borrero!!!!
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hb2 week 2, forearm
this is a tribute to an extraordinary handstanding, plane flying, carpal tunnel releasing surgeon