1. Pharmacology is
    the study of drugs and their action on living organisms.
  2. Herbal medicine is
    the type of complementary/alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders.
  3. Prescription drugs are
    designated by the federal govt as potentially harmful unless their use is supervised by a licensed health care provider.
  4. Adverse reaction is
    undesirable drug effect.
  5. Prescription drugs also called legend drugs are
    the largest category of drugs.
  6. Prescription drugs contains
    the name of the drug, the dosage, the method and times of administration, and the signature of the provider.
  7. Nonprescription drugs are
    designated by the FDA and can be obtained without a prescription.
  8. Nonprescription drugs are
    also referred to as OTC and may be purchased at pharmacy, drugstore, or supermarket.
  9. Controlled substances are
    the most carefully monitored of all drugs. Have a high potential for abuse and may cause physical or psychological dependecy.
  10. Physical dependecy is
    the habitual use of a drug, in which negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation.
  11. Psychological dependency is
    a compulsion or craving to use a substance to obtain a pleasurable experience.
  12. The Controlled Substance Act of 1970
    established a schedule or classification system for drugs with abuse potential.
  13. Phase I involves
    20 to 100 individuals who are healthy volunteers. If successful moves to Phase II.
  14. Phase II in
    which tests are performed on people who have the disease or condition for which the drug is thought to be effective. If positive then goes to Phase III.
  15. Phase III
    in which the drug is given to large numbers of patients in medical research centers to provide info about adverse reactions.
  16. Phase IV occurs after
    the manufacturer places the drug on the market and put on surveillance.
  17. The Orphan Drug Act of 1983 was passed
    to encourage the development and marketing of products used to treat rare diseases.
  18. Pharmaceutice phase
    the drug dissolves. Drugs must be soluble to be absorbed.
  19. Pharmacokinetics refers
    to activities within the body after a drug is administered. Include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
  20. Absorption follows administration and is the process
    by which a drug is made available for use in the body.
  21. Active transport cellular energy is
    used to move the drug from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration.
  22. Passive transport no cellular energy is
    used as the drug moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. small molecules diffuse across the cell membrane.
  23. Pinocytosis
    cells engulf the drug particle. cell forms a vesicle to transport the drug into the inner cell.
  24. First-pass effect is
    action by which an oral drug is absorbed and carried directly to the liver, where it is inactivated by enzymes before it enters the bloodstream.
  25. Metabolism also called biotransformation is
    the process by which the body changes a drug to a more or less active for that can be excreted.
  26. Metabolite is
    an inactive form of the original drug.
  27. Excretion is
    the elimination of drugs from the body.
  28. Half-life is
    the time required for the body to eliminate 50% of the drug.
  29. Onset of action is
    time between administration of the drug and onset of its therapeutic effect.
  30. Peak concentration is
    when absorption rate equals the elimination rate (not always the time of peak response)
  31. Duration of action is
    the length of time the drug produces a therapeutic effect.
  32. Pharmacodynamics is
    the study of the drug mechanisms that produce biochemical or physiologic changtes in the body.
  33. Drug-receptor interaction is
    when a drug molecule selectively joins with a reactive site- the receptor- on the surface of a cell.
  34. Agonist is
    a drug that binds with a receptor and stimulates the receptor to produce a therapeutic response.
  35. An Antagonist is
    a drug that joins with receptors but does not stimulate the receptors
  36. Competitive antagonist
    competes with the agonists for receptor sites.
  37. Noncompetitive antagonist
    binds with receptor sites and always blocks the effects of the agonists.
  38. The teratogen is
    any substance that causes abnormal development of the fetus, often leading to severe deformation.
  39. Mannitol
    produces a change in the osmotic pressure in brain cells, causing a reduction in cerebral edema.
  40. Docusate is
    an example of a drug that acts by altering the surface of cell membrane.
  41. Pharmacogenomics is
    the study of how people's responses to medications are variable due to individual genetic variation.
  42. An allergic reaction is
    an intermediate hypersensitivity reaction.
  43. Antigen is
    a foreign substance in which an individuals immune system responds to the drug.
  44. Antibodies are
    protein substances that protect against antigens.
  45. Anaphylactic shock is
    an extremely serious allergic drug reaction that occurs shortly after the admin of a drug to which the individual is sensitive.
  46. Angioedema (angioneurotic) is
    an allergic reaction manifested by the collection of fluid in subq tissues.
  47. Drug idiosyncrasy is
    used to describe any unusual or abnormal reaction to a drug.
  48. Drug tolerance is
    used to describe a decreased response to a drug, requiring an increase in dosage to achieve desired effect.
  49. Cumulative drug effect is
    when the body is unable to metabolize and excrete one dose of a drug before the next dose is given.
  50. Addictive drug reaction is
    when the combined effect of two drugs is equal to the sum of each drug given alone.
  51. Synergism
    occurs when drugs interact with each other and produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their separate actions.
  52. Polypharmacy is
    the taking of numerous drugs that can potentially react with one another.
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