1. Where does a graded depolarization occur and how?
    How: From sensory stimilus. the amount of stimilus varies resulting in different levels of graded potentials

    Where: Dendrites, Cell body
  2. Describe a graded depolarization
    when the type of neurotransmitter binding to its receptor causes sodium channels to open, then sodium ions would move into the cell and the resulting graded potential would be depolarization
  3. Define summation of graded potentials
    • Summation is the additive process of graded potentials.
    • One single graded potential is not enough to generate action potential, graded potentials can accumulate due to multiple locations of simultaneous inputs
  4. Define Spatial Summation
    Effects of stimuli from multiple sources occurring close together in time arriving at the axon hillock (trigger zone) at the same time
  5. Define Temporal Summation
    Stimuli applied in rapid succession, such that stimulus from one graded stimulus does not dissipate before the next stimulus applied
  6. Define Threshold
    Threshold is the level of depolarization necessary to induce action potential
  7. Define Subthreshold
    The level of depolarization insufficient to induce action potential
  8. Define Suprathreshold
    Level of depolarization in excess of threshold. It is sufficient to induce action potential.

    -Does not produce a stronger action potential
  9. Put the following in order and label with correct phase: describing the sequence of events that occur during an action potential.
    activation of Na+ channels and rapid depolarization (positive feedback)
    Return to resting membrane potential
    Depolarization to threshold -70 to -55
    Repolarizaton with the activation of K+ channels
    • 1. Depolarization to threshold -70 to -55
    • 2. Activation of Na+ channels and rapid depolarization phase 1
    • 3. Repolarization with the activation of K+ channels phase 2
    • 4. Hyperpolarization phase 3
    • 5. Return to resting membrane potential
  10. Describe absolute refractory peroids
    During the absoult refractory peroid NO stimulus of any strength can generate a second action potential

    • No influx of sodium (Na+) possible: inactivation gate closed and incapable of opening until return to resting state.
    • K+ channels are open

    Prevents summation of action potentials
  11. Define Relative refractory peroid
    Stronger than normal stimulus needed for another immediate action potenial

    Na+ channels ready but K+ channels still open

    This offsets Na+ influx
  12. True or false:

    Action potentials are dependent upon threshold; all or nothing?
  13. True or false:

    The following are true of action potentials:

    -all or nothing
    -action potentials are identical
    -action potentials do not diminish in strength over distance
    -action potentials cannot be summated
  14. What factors influence conduction velocity of action potentials?
    • Larger diameter axons carry faster signals
    • Myelinated axons carry faster signals. The action potnetial jumps across myelinated segments
    • Nodes of Ranvier- greatest concentration of voltage gated sodium and potassium channels
    • conserves energy- requires less energy to re-establish sodium/potassium distribution by Na/K pump at nodes only
Card Set
Chapter 7,8,11