Marketing Exam 2

  1. Goal
    drives motivate consumers to return to a preferred or desired state
  2. Needs are aroused via three routes:
    • 1. Physiological
    • 2. Emotional
    • 3. Cognitive
  3. Wants
    learned manifestation of needs

    -product-specific needs or need satisfiers
  4. Psychological Needs
  5. Physiological Needs
    innate or primary
  6. Needs
    desires that arise when a consumers actual state does not meet his or her desired state
  7. Emotion

    -focuses attention on emotional objects
  8. Motivation
    a driving force that moves or incites consumers to act

    -focuses attention on goal-relevant objects
  9. Approach
    movement toward a desired object
  10. avoidance
    movement away from an undesired object
  11. Intrinsic Motivation
    pursuing an activity for its own sake
  12. Extrinsic Motivation
    pursuing an activity in order to receive a reward
  13. Power
    the need to control other people, objects, and the environment to acquire desired things
  14. Affiliation
    the need for belongingness and friendship,or to be a member of an important group
  15. Achievement
    the need to accomplish difficult tasks
  16. Expressive Needs
    involve desires by consumers to fulfill self-expressive (social) and/or aesthetic requirements
  17. Utilitarian Needs
    involve desires by consumers to solve basic problems
  18. Functional Motives
    result from goals that people seek to achieve
  19. Examples of Functional Motives
    • -Social
    • -Career
    • -Altruistic
    • -Ego (Inflate self relative to others)
    • -Understanding (learning and information)
    • -Protection ( help person to feel better about himself/herself, relieve guilt)
  20. Opponent Process Theory
    explains that reactions occur when a person receives a strong stimulus that elicits an immediate positive or negative emotional state
  21. Optimum Stimulation Level Theory
    A persons preferred amount of physiological activation or arousal

    -varies from very high (panic) or very low (sleep)
  22. Motivation to Maintain Behavioral Freedom
    psychological reactance is the motivational state resulting from the response to threats to behavioral freedom
  23. Social threats
    involve external pressure from other people to induce a consumer to do something
  24. Impersonal threats
    barriers that restrict the ability to buy a particular product or service
  25. Perceived risk
    a consumers perception of the overall negativity of a course of action based upon as assessment of the possible negative outcomes and of the likelihood that these outcomes will occur
  26. Perceived Risk consists of 2 major concepts
    • -negative outcomes of a decision
    • -the probability these outcomes will occur
  27. Types of Consumer Risk
    • -Financial
    • -Performance
    • -Physical
    • -Social
    • -Time
    • -Opportunity Loss
  28. Factors Impacting Risk Perception
    • 1. Characteristics of the person- need for arousal
    • 2. Nature of the task- Voluntary risks are perceived as less risky than involuntary tasks
    • 3. Characteristics of the product- price
    • 4. Salience of negative outcomes- Availability heuristic, and dread effect.
  29. Attribution Theory
    the processes through which people make determinations of the causality of action
  30. Internal Attribution
    when a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because they actually liked it
  31. External Attribution
    When a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because they were paid for endorsing it
  32. Discounting Principle
    If external pressures exist that could provoke someone to act in a particular way - so actions would be expected given the circumstances. Results in external attribution
  33. Augmenting principle
    • when a person moves against the forces of the environment to do something unexpected, the belief that the action represents the person's actual opinions, feelings, and desires is increased.
    • Results in internal attribution.
  34. Fundamental Attribution Error
    One consistent finding is that people are biased to make internal attributions to others
  35. Endorsers
    seek to get consumers to perceive internal motives for making endorsements
  36. Satisfaction
    seek to get consumers to perceive external reasons for a product or corporate problem. Seek internal attributions for socially responsible actions
  37. Sales Promotion
    find ways to avoid consumers attributing the cause of the purchase to the sale rather than to the excellence of the product
  38. Excitation Transfer Theory
    Explains how arousal from one source can be misattributed to another source.
  39. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    • - Consumers strive for "consonance" between specific behavior and attitudes related to that behavior
    • -Behavior-Attitude inconsistency creates dissonance, and unpleasant tension
    • -Consumer seek to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes to match their behaviors
  40. Discrepancy-Interruption Theory
    • -Discrepancies or surprises and interruptions increase arousal and emotion
    • -Discrepancies require immediate attention
    • -Small discrepancies produce positive emotions
    • -Large discrepancies produce negative emotions
  41. Learning
    the process of acquiring new information and knowledge about products and services for application to future behavior
  42. Memory
    enables past experiences and learning to influence current behaviors
  43. Knowledge
    occurs when a person makes associations between concepts
  44. Behavioral Learning
    • -Classical conditioning
    • -Operant conditioning
    • -Vicarious learning
  45. Cognitive Learning
    Comprehension and Memory Processes
  46. Forward Conditioning
    Most Effective

    • 1.Brand
    • 2. Attractive Endorser
  47. Backward Conditioning
    Less Effective

    • 1.Attractive Endorser
    • 2. Brand
  48. Pre-exposure effect
    An unconditioned stimuli previously encountered without pairing will not be effectively linked to a conditioned stimulus
  49. Operant Conditioning
    the process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior
  50. Secondary Reinforcers
    a previously neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties through its association with a primary reinforcer - called chaining
  51. Punisher
    any stimulus whose presence after a behavior decreases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
  52. Extinction
    the disappearance of a response due to lack of reinforcement
  53. Discriminative Stimuli
    those stimuli that occur in the presence of a reinforcer and do not occur in its absence

    They indicate that a particular response will lead to a reward
  54. Stimulus discrimination
    occurs when an organism behaves differently depending on the presence of one of two stimuli.
  55. Stimulus Generalization
    occurs when an organism reacts similarly to two or more distinct stimuli.
  56. Shaping
    the process of creating totally new operant behaviors by selectively reinforcing behaviors that successively approximate the desired instrumental response
  57. Vicarious Learning
    the phenomenon where people observe the actions of others to develop "patterns of behavior"
  58. Comprehension
    requires relating new information to old information stored in memory

    as comprehension increases, memory performance improves
  59. Perceptual Organization
    the ay people perceive the shapes, forms, figures, and lines in their visual world.
  60. Interpretation Process
    how people draw upon their experience, memory, and expectations to attach meaning to a stimulus
  61. Aesthetics
    the interpretation and expression of beauty

    - critical in commercial design (logos, packaging, advertising)
  62. Design and Gestalt Principles
    • good figure- has order, stability, simplicity, and continuity.
    • logos- characteristics of those liked the most and were most easily recognized (harmonious, natural)
  63. divine proportion
    aka golden ratio = 1.618

    The point that cuts the line such that ratio of line A to line B is identical to the ratio of A to the entire line

    Phi is an irrational number of 1.618 and a series of never ending digits
  64. Transience
    forgetting over time.

    recently processed information is more accessible, or easy to retrieve

    use it or lose it
  65. Absent Mindedness
    forgetting as a result of shallow or superficial processing during encoding or retrieval

    • -encoding- attention, comprehension, and transference of information from short to long term memory
    • -retrieval- transference from long to short term memory
  66. Superficial Processing
    Absent mindedness results from being overloaded with information and not being able to focus on important stimuli. It is an attention problem, not a problem with shallow processing
  67. Blocking
    retrieval failure due to interference from related information stored in memory
  68. Associative Network
    Closely related nodes, ideas, or pieces of information connected directly by a single association.

    Distantly related nodes are connected by a chain or series of associations

    Spreading activation; one node leads to tendency to think about nodes that are connected

    Priming: activating a node will lead to inferences about other nodes
  69. Associative Inference
    new associations increase the complexity of consumers associative networks

    these new associations can compete with and block old associations

    encoding specificity principle: context in which cognitive learning occurs becomes associated with the information learned
  70. Misattribution
    3 different types of memory confusion

    • 1. Source confusion- remembering a fact and forgetting the source
    • 2. Feelings of Familiarity- confusing feelings of familiarity with fame, confidence, liking, and truth. (Halo Effect)
    • 3. False memories- the tendency to remember items or events that never happened

    Mere exposure is not misattribution- it results from high levels of exposure to a stimulus, which causes increased liking.
  71. Suggestibility
    misleading questions and suggestions can lead to memory distortions
  72. Bias
    ambiguous product experiences are open to multiple interpretations

    prior beliefs can bias perception of current beliefs and experiences

    current beliefs can bias memory for prior beliefs
  73. Persistence
    not forgetting things we want to forget
  74. Automatic Information Processing
    The mental processes that occur without awareness or intention, but influence judgements, feelings, goals, and behaviors.
  75. Minimal Thought
    consumers base decisions on attitudes that come to mind automatically
  76. Impulse Purchases
    often made with little or no conscious thought. Activated by feelings rather than by beliefs.
  77. Incidental Learning
    learning that occurs during everyday life without any intentions to learn
  78. Thin slices
    brief observations of another persons behavior that provide surprisingly accurate information about this persons personality, feelings, and goals

    • more accurate when:
    • observations are brief and focused on nonverbal information and consumers have a lot of practice
  79. Explicit Memory
    consumers are aware that they are searching for information stored in memory
  80. Implicit Memory
    searching for information without awareness or intention
  81. Priming
    consumers are subtly lead to think about a concept such as a brand name, attribute, or benefit
  82. The truth effect
    as familiarity for a brand increases....

    • -a brand names seems more famous
    • -liking for the brand increases
    • -judgements about the brand are held with more confidence
  83. Distractions Effects
    Belief and comprehension are inseparable

    Consumers initially believe everything in order to understand

    Unbelieving is a separate process, requiring time and effort

    Distraction can inhibit unbelieving as well as information overload, such as when multi-tasking
  84. Self Concept
    defined as the "totality of the individuals thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as and object.
  85. Personality
    defined as "the distinctive patterns of behavior, including thoughts, and emotions, that characterize each individuals adaptation to the situations of his or her life."

    The goal is to identify personality variables that distinguish large groups of people from each other
  86. Psychographic Analysis
    The measurement of the life-styles of consumers
  87. Self Concept in Consumer Research
    The self concept represents the "totality of the individuals thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object"
  88. Role Identities
    the numerous positions that consumers occupy in society
  89. Personal Qualities
    modes of interpersonal behavior
  90. Self Evaluation
    measure of adequacy
  91. Extended Self
    the relationship between a consumers self concept and his or her possessions
  92. Love
    the second most common word consumers use to describe their feelings about possessions
  93. Loved Objects
    derive emotional status by helping consumers resolve internal conflicts
  94. Self Monitoring
    the extent to which consumers use situational cues to guide their social behavior
  95. High Self Monitors
    routinely modify their behavior to match the exceptions of others
  96. Low Self monitors
    act primarily on the basis of their internal beliefs and attitudes
  97. Impression Management
    the process of creating desirable images of ourselves for others
  98. Consumers practice impression management to obtain...
    praise, approval, sympathy, favors, liking
  99. Appearance Management
    controlling clothes, grooming, verbal communications, and possessions
  100. Ingratiation
    a set of strategic behaviors designed to gain benefits or favors from other people
  101. Aligning Activities
    comments that attempt to realign behavior with norms
  102. Ingratiation
    refers to self serving tactics engaged in by one person to make himself or herself more attractive to another
  103. Personality has 4 essential characteristics
    • 1. Behavior must show consistency over time
    • 2. Behavior should distinguish the person from others
    • 3. Personality characteristics are not rigidly connected to specific types of behavior
    • 4. Personality variables often moderate the effects of other variables on behavior
  104. Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
    Personality results from the clash of 3 forces - the id, the ego, and the superego

    • 1. The id represents physiological drives
    • 2. The ego represents acts to curb the appetites of the id
    • 3. The superego is the conscience or "voice within"
  105. 3 Key principles, plus research implications
    • 1. Pleasure principle: basis for functioning of id
    • 2. Reality principle: basis for functioning of ego.
    • 3. Death wish: elicited by death symbols.
    • 4. Large impact on research methods
    • - Depth interviews, focus groups
  106. Trait Theory
    any characteristic in which one person differs from another in a relatively permanent and consistent way.
  107. 3M Model of Motivation and Personality
    Behavioral Depositions result from a system of traits operating together

    Traits organized into 4 levels based upon their level of abstraction- abstract to concrete
  108. Elemental Traits
    Most basic/abstract arising from genetics and early learning history
  109. Compound Traits
    cross-situational predispositions arising from combinations of elemental traits and the cultural environment (competitiveness)
  110. Situational Traits
    predispositions to act within a general situational context
  111. Surface Traits
    highly concrete enduring dispositions to act within specific contexts

    • - Healthy diet focus
    • -Exercise focus
    • -Customer orientation
    • -Organizational Citizenship
    • -Aggressive driving propensity
    • -Distracted driving propensity
    • -Bargaining proneness
  112. 8 proposed elemental traits
    • 1. Openness to experience
    • 2. Conscientiousness
    • 3. Extroversion
    • 4. Agreeableness
    • 5. Emotional Stability
    • 6. Need for material resources
    • 7. Need for arousal
    • 8. Need for body resources
  113. Compulsive Buying
    defined as a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative feelings

    as many as 5% of consumers are compulsive
  114. Life Style
    how many people live, how they spend their money, and how they allocate their time.

    traditionally life style and personality have been viewed as different
  115. Brand Personality
    the set of human characteristics associated with a brand

    • 1. Sincerity
    • 2. Excitement
    • 3. Competence
    • 4. Sophistication
    • 5. Ruggedness
  116. VALS
    based upon motivational and developmental psychological theories particularly Maslow's hierachy of needs theory
  117. VALS 2
    developed specifically to measure consumer buying patters

    Goal is to identify specific relationships between consumers attitudes and purchase behavior.

    Used by corporations to understand the basis for consumer lifestyles, which is useful for developing promotional strategy and even where to place retail stores.
  118. A Warning
    • -Psychographic inventories often result in clever descriptions of a target market that can result in stereotypes
    • -It can result in managers disparaging the target group
    • -It can cause managers to view the target market as more homogeneous than it really is.
  119. Routine Choice
    carried out automatically, with little conscious effort
  120. Intermediate Problem Solving
    limited information search and deliberation
  121. Extensive Problem Solving
    requires deliberate and systematic effort
  122. Processing Effort
    a continuum from automatic to systematic processing
  123. Involvement
    a continuum from low to high personal relevance
  124. Perceived Risk
    • 1. Financial
    • 2. Functional
    • 3. Physical
    • 4. Psychological
    • 5. Social
    • 6. Opportunity Cost
    • 7. Information Risk (buying stock)
  125. Brand Laziness
    a natural inertia toward a brand based on familiarity and convience
  126. Brand Loyalty
    intrinsic commitment to a brand based on specific benefits or values offered
  127. Variety Seeking
  128. Problem Solving
    a deliberated effort to collect information and carefully evaluate a variety of brands
Card Set
Marketing Exam 2
Marketing Exam 2