1. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  2. DNA Helicase
    Enzyme that unwinds and unzips DNA
  3. DNA Polymerase
    Enzyme that attaches free nucleotides to the growing new strand of DNA
  4. Gene
    Code for a trait
  5. DNA Replication occurs because of
    Cell Division or a deficiency/break in the genes
  6. Antiparallel Chains
    One strand of DNA is 3' to 5'; the other is 5' to 3'. One side is upside-down.
  7. Where DNA is found in a prokaryotic cell
  8. Where DNA is found in a eukaryotic cell
  9. What did Griffith experiment on?
  10. What did Griffith test?
    Cooked and uncooked Streptococcus bacteria
  11. What did Griffith discover?
    The living nonvirulent bacteria could acquire the ability to cause disease from virulent bacteria. He called this process �transformation�.
  12. Temperature of DNA death:
  13. Temperature of protein death:
  14. How did temperature affect Griffith's experiment?
    The DNA survived the heat that killed the bacteria and continued the process of transformation.
  15. What did Hershey and Chase test on?
  16. How did Hershey and Chase perform their experiment?
    Mixed sulfur (for proteins) with one batch of bacteriophages, and phosphorus(for DNA) in another. They mixed each batch in a blender and found that the injected cells contained phosphorus, and were therefore injected with DNA.
  17. What did Hershey and Chase discover?
    DNA is genetic material (in bacteriophages)
  18. What did Watson and Crick do?
    Won a Nobel Prize for figuring out the shape of DNA
  19. Where did Rosalind Franklin come in?
    She photographed DNA with x-rays, and Watson and Crick stole them.
  20. DNA is made of
  21. Nucleotides are made of
    Phosphate, Deoxyribose(sugar), and a Nitrogenous base
  22. four nitrogenous bases:
    Adenine guanine thymine cytosine
  23. Purines:
    Guanine, Adenine
  24. Pyrimidines:
    Thymine, Cytosine
  25. What did Chargaff do?
    Found that Adenine and Thymine amounts were equal; same with Guanine and Cytosine.
  26. Types of bonds between sugars:
    Strong Covalent Bonds
  27. Types of bonds between nitrogenous bases:
    Weak Hydrogen Bonds
  28. Which pair of bases has a triple bond between them?
    Guanine and cytosine
  29. Which pair of bases has a double bond?
    Adenine and thymine
  30. Why does DNA replication occur?
    If the cell is dividing or if the DNA is damaged
  31. Semi-conservative replication
    The model we use.
  32. Name of bacteriophage cycle
    Lytic Cycle
  33. What are bacteriophages made of?
    DNA; wrapped in protein
  34. What do bacteriophages do to the host cell?
    They attach to the surfaces of bacteria and inject their hereditary information into the bacterial cell.
  35. How does the bacteriophage-injected DNA behave?
    This genetic material will combine with the host cell�s DNA. Once inside the bacteria, this info directs the production of hundreds of new viruses. The viruses grow and burst from the cell.
  36. Explanation of semi-conservative model
    Both strands of the old double helix separate and become one half of the new double helix.
  37. Replication fork is
    Initial point of separation
  38. What DNA Helicase does
    Unwinds and unzips DNA
  39. What DNA Polymerase does
    Attaches free nucleotides to the new growing DNA strand
  40. Step One of semi-conservative DNA replication:
    DNA helicase uncoils the DNA strand
  41. Step two of semi-conservative DNA replication:
    The hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases break
  42. Step three of semi-conservative DNA replication:
    DNA polymerase attaches floating nucleotides to the exposed parent strand until the complementary strand is completed.
  43. Step four of the semi-conservative DNA replication model:
    The DNA recoils.
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