Islam and Byzantine Empire

  1. Explain the geographical relationship between the Roman and Byzantine empires.
    • When Rome was divided into E and W, the E became known as Byzantium.
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  2. Where was Constantinople located?
    A peninsula on the Bosporus strait
  3. What advantages did Constantinople's location give it?
    • All attackers were forced to come from the sea (which is less than ideal)
    • It was located in the trade crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa
  4. Describe the mote/wall system of Constantinople.
    • There was 60ft wide/22ft deep moat (that could be either wet or dry) surrounding the whole city.
    • The first wall was Crenelated (see image) and soldiers were stationed there
    • The second wall had towers
    • The third wall had towers and was 70ft tall
    • Beyond that, there was a sea of snapping turtles (not really) and fizzy, sugary, explosive, sticky water (also not really)
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  5. What function did the Patriarch of Constantine assume?
    He was the equivalent of a bishop.
  6. Who was the most famous Byzantium emperor? What was his major accomplishment?
    • Justinian (527-565 AD)
    • He regained the lost parts of the empire (his successors quickly lost them again)
  7. What was Justinian's Code?
    It was a united code of all Roman law. It eliminated discrepancies and redundancies.
  8. What was the name of the famous church that Justinian created? What does this name mean?
    • Santa Sophia
    • Holy wisdom
  9. Explain some basic architectural features of the Santa Sophia.
    • Square floor plan with a dome roof (accomplished by pendentive design [see picture])
    • 40 dome windows
    • Walls covered in mosaics that reflected light
    • There's a lot more, but I wasn't really listening this day. This should be enough, but there's a large chance something like this will be an essay question because we spent an entire day on it.
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    • (this is a picture of the Santa Sophia)
  10. The middle Byzantine Empire lost a lot of their territory to what group? What area did they manage to keep?
    • Muslims
    • The Balkan Mountains.
  11. What was the iconoclastic movement? Where did it occur? What effects did it have on cultural tensions, and art development?
    • It was a Christian movement that stated that icons/symbols/portrayals of god or other religious objects were unholy and in violation of the 10 commandments. Objects in violation were destroyed.
    • It occurred in the Eastern Roman Empire.
    • It maddened the Western Romans, who thought they were being accused of Paganism by the Eastern Romans.
    • This stunted the development/execution of sculpting and other arts at the time. At the end of the movement, small-scale sculpting appeared once again, but large sculptures never returned to their previous condition.
  12. How did Emperor Leo III use the iconoclastic movement for his benefit?
    He used it as an excuse to confiscate monastary/nunnery's lands for expanding his army/empire. This caused friction between the East and West.
  13. Explain the differences between the Eastern and Western religious hierarchies.
    • West: Bishops were the religious leaders of cities, and the Pope was the Bishop of Rome. The pope became a spiritual and political leader when the Roman empire fell. All masses were held in Latin.
    • East: The emperor of the East appointed patriarchs and bishops, investigated monastaries/nunneries, and called councils to make religious decisions. Masses were held in the region's vernacular. This caused discrepancies in the religious beliefs.
  14. What was the split between Eastern and Western religions called? When did it happen?
    • Schism
    • 1054 AD
  15. Why did the Eastern and Western Christian communities split? Into what two groups did they split? Give the meanings of their names.
    • Their religious views differed, and the Bishop of Constantinople excommunicated the Pope. The pope then excommunicated the Bishop of Constantinople.
    • West: Roman Catholicism (meaning universal)
    • East: Greek Orthodox (meaning correct)
  16. In 1071, who attacked the Byzantine Empire? What was their reason for doing so?
    • The Seljuk Turks (who had just converted to the Muslim religion)
    • They thought that the Arabs had grown complacent in the practicing of their religion.
  17. When the Seljuk Turks attacked in 1071, the Byzantine Empire's army was weak. How did they rectify this issue?
    When asked for help by the Byzantines, the Pope gathered an army from France to begin The Crusades.
  18. Why were people so anxious to go on crusades to Turkey?
    The Turks closed the Holy Land to pilgrims. 1,000s of people went on crusades, and the 1st one was successful.
  19. What group of people took Constantinople? When did they do this?
    • Ottoman Turks
    • 1453 KNOW THIS DATE
  20. What lasting contributions did the Byzantinians make?
    • Justinian's Code
    • Hagia Sophia (with pendentive architecture)
    • Spread of Christianity to Eastern Europe (e.g. Russia)
    • Czars
    • Byzantine scholars visited rome and spread documents/ideas
    • El Greco's art
  21. Who was the founder of Islam? When did he live?
    • Muhammad
    • C. 570-632 AD
  22. Briefly explain Muhammad's childhood and marriage.
    • He was raised by his uncle and other family members in Mecca because his parents died. He lived in poverty, and he could not go to school. He worked in the trade caravans as a boy and became knowledgeable of other religions.
    • He married Khadija (a businesswoman, who was older than him {couuugarrrrr}) and they had a successful marriage. She accepted and supported his religious doings.
  23. Describe the aspects of the location of Mecca.
    • It was an oasis.
    • There were trade caravans from East Asia that went up the Arabian Peninsula and through Mecca.
    • It was a religious center.
  24. Describe the order in which Muhammad was contacted by Alla. What did he do with this information?
    Alla -> Angel Gabriel -> Muhammad -> Qur'an
  25. When Muhammad brought his newfound religion to the Meccans, how did they react? Where did he bring the religion afterwards?
    • They did not want to accept the religion because it preached that there was only one god (they believed in many gods). This would eradicate temples, which would destroy the economy.
    • He brought it to Medina
  26. When Muhammad brought Islam to Medina, what was the journey called? When did it take place?
    • Hegira
  27. When Muhammad realized that it was necessary to spread his religion to Mecca, what did he do? How did the Meccans respond?
    • He attacked trade caravans
    • Mecca sent an army to Medina, Muhammad defeated them, and returned to Mecca in 630 AD.
  28. Give a brief outline of the 5 pillars (name and BASIC principle)
    • Faith: Alla is the only god, Muhammad is a messenger
    • Prayer: Pray 5x/day
    • Alms: Give to the poor
    • Fasting: Ramadan shows humility to Alla
    • Pilgrimage: Taking the hajj to Mecca
  29. What are Sunna and shari'a
    • Sunna: Muhammad's example for proper living
    • Shari'a: The system of law for Muslims
  30. Explain the Pillar of faith in great detail. (Part of a 25 point essay question)
    • There is only one god
    • Muhammad is the last, best prophet in existence who recorded the Qur'an (other prophets include Jesus, Moses, Abraham, Ishmael)
    • Do not doubt the Qur'an
    • There is an afterlife, and the last day (the day of judgment) is the day in which one's fate is determined
    • Angels exist (Gabriel is the angel who spoke to Muhammad)
  31. Explain the Pillar of prayer in great detail. (Part of a 25 point essay question)
    • You must do a prescribed prayer 5 times/day. You must face towards Mecca if you are not there, and face towards the Kaaba if you are in Mecca. You are called to prayer by the Muezzin.
    • Friday is the holy day on which you go to the mosque to pray.
    • Ulamas are religious experts of mosques.
    • You should still pray other times of the day (non-prescribed)
    • You may make up missed prayers later
  32. Explain the Pillar of alms in great detail. (Part of a 25 point essay question)
    • The righteous man gives away his wealth to kinsfolk, orphans, the helpless, travelers in need, beggars, and for the redemption of captives (improvement of those in need of improvement).
    • This righteous man who does these things is the true believer, he is God-fearing.
  33. Explain the Pillar of fasting in great detail. (Part of a 25 point essay question)
    • Fast a certain number of days from sunrise until sunset. Eat a modest meal after sunset to show thankfulness to god for giving you His guidance.
    • Fast during the month of Ramadan.
    • If someone is unable to fast, (due to sickness, traveling, pregnancy, etc.) he/she should make up the same number of days fasting later.
    • Alla does not want you to be uncomfortable, he just wants your thankfulness.
  34. Explain the Pillar of pilgrimage in great detail. (Part of a 25 point essay question)
    • Make the Hajj to Mecca (to see the Kaaba) for God's sake.
    • If you can't, send offerings that you can afford.
    • This pillar is less important than the others due to the complications that may arise from logistical or financial problems.
  35. What is the Kaaba (structurally)? What does it signify? When do pilgrims visit the Kaaba? For whom is the Kaaba dedicated?
    • It is an empty, cubical building in Mecca.
    • There is only one god (Alla)
    • During the Hajj
    • Abraham, the father of all Muslims.
  36. When Muhammad died, who succeeded him? Who came after that person? Who came after that? What were there relationships to Muhammad?
    • Abu Bakr (close friend)
    • Ali (son-in-law)
    • Husayn (Ali's son)
  37. What was Abu Bakr's major accomplishment?
    He kept the Arabs united.
  38. When the Arabs attacked the Byzantines, what lands did they conquer?
    Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt
  39. What was the capital of the Umayyad Dynasty?
  40. The Umayyads continued to expand their territory. In what year had they conquered land from Spain to India? In what year/place did they stop?
    • 711 AD
    • 732 AD
  41. What are the two groups into which the Arabs split? What are their major differences?
    • Shia: (Shiites) Caliphs should be related to Muhammad. Iraq is a mostly Sunni dominated area. They rejected the Abbasid compromise.
    • Sunni: Anyone can rule.
  42. When the Abbasids came to power, what did they do?
    They moved the capital to Baghdad, and they enacted the Abbasid Compromise in which the Caliph was a political ruler and the Ulama was a religious ruler.
  43. What technological advancements did the Muslims make?
    • Algebra
    • Modern numerals
    • Medicine
    • Cancer treatments
    • Brain surgery
    • Ibnsing wrote the encyclopedia of medicine
    • Tuberculosis is contageous
    • Psychiatric disorder studies
    • Pharmacies
    • Hospitals
    • Travelling clinics
    • Astronomy
    • Greek/Roman documents were valued
  44. Name 3 important facets of Arab architecture.
    • Domes on squares
    • Mosques
    • Palaces
  45. Name the important aspects of Islamic art.
    • Religious art has no humans, animals, or plants
    • Calligraphy
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    • Geometric designs
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    • Floral design
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    • Arabesques
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    • Squinch structures for domes
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  46. What is a Mihrab?
    It is the most decorated, important spot in a Mosque. It signifies the direction of Mecca.
  47. What is an Arabesque?
    It is a design with only a slight repetition. It is not as strictly repeated as a geometric design.
Card Set
Islam and Byzantine Empire
Mrs. Johnston World History Honors