sociology 8

  1. social stratification
    • to describe such inequalities among individuals and groups within human society
    • key aspects: class, status, and power
  2. structured inequalities
    social inequalities
  3. slavery
    extreme form of inequality in which certain people are owned as property by others
  4. caste system
    social system in which one's social status is bestowed for life
  5. caste societies
    different social levels are closed so that all individuals must remain at the social level of their birth throughout life
  6. endogamy
    marriage within one's social group as required by custom or law
  7. class
    • important for analyzing stratification in industrialized societies like in the US.
    • large group of people who occupy a similar economic position in the wider society
  8. life chances
    are the opportunities you have for achieving economic prosperity
  9. Kuznets curve
    formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, then declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level
  10. income
    refers to wages and salaries earned from paid occupations, plus unearned money from investments
  11. wealth
    refers to all the assets individuals own: cash, savings, and checking accounts, investments in stocks, bonds, real estate properties.
  12. upper class
    consists of the very wealthiest Americans-those households earning more than $157,185. or approx 5% of all American households.
  13. middle class
    catchall for a diverse group of occupations, lifestyles, and people who earn stable and sometimes substantial incomes at primarily white-collar jobs
  14. working class
    • makes up about 20% of all American households.
    • blue-collar and pink-collar laborers
  15. lower class
    which makes up roughly 15% of American households which includes those who work part time or not at all.
  16. underclass
    "beneath" the class system in that they lack access to the world of work and mainstream patterns of behavior
  17. social mobility
    refers to the movement of individuals and groups between different class positions as a result of changes in occupation, wealth, or income
  18. intragenerational mobility
    how far they move up or down the socioeconomic scale in the course of their working lives
  19. intergenerational mobility
    • analyze where children are on the scare compared with their parents or grandparents
    • mobility across the generation
  20. exchange mobility
    there is an exchange of positions, such that more talented people in each generation move up the economic hierarchy, while the less talented move down.
  21. structural mobility
    upward mobility made possible by an expansion of better-paid occupations at the expense of more poorly paid ones
  22. industrialism hypothesis
    • societies become more open to movement between classes as they become more technological advanced
    • as societies become more industrial, workers increasingly get jobs because of achievement
  23. ascription
    refers to placement in a particular social status based on characteristics such as family of origin, race, and gender
  24. vertical mobility
    movement along the socioeconomic scale, nearly all of it was between occupational positions quite close to one another
  25. short-range downward mobility
    moves from one job to another that is similar
  26. absolute poverty
    • means that a person or family simply can't get enough to eat
    • undernourished or may starve to death
  27. relative poverty
    • measure of inequality
    • being poor compared with the stadards of living of the majority
    • lacks the basic resources to maintain a decent standard of housing and healthy living conditions
  28. poverty line
    income equal to 3x the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet
  29. working poor
    people who work but those earnings are not high enough to lift them above poverty
  30. feminization of poverty
    increase in the proportion of the poor who are female
  31. culture of poverty
    • exists among many poor people
    • poverty not a result of individual inadequacies but is instead the outcome of a larger social and cultural atmosphere into which successive generations of children are socialized
  32. dependency culture
    poor people who rely on govn. welfare provision rather than entering the labor market
  33. social exclusion
    • refers to new sources of inequality
    • ways in which individuals may become cut off from involvement in the wider society
  34. homeless
    seen at the very bottom of the social hierarchy
  35. means of production
    means by which they gain a livelihood
  36. capitalists
    those who earn their living by selling their labor to them, the working class
  37. surplus value
    source of profit which capitalists are able to put to their own use
  38. pariah groups
    negatively privileged status groups, subject to discrimination that prevents them from taking advantage of opportunities open to others
  39. contradictory class locations
    • ambiguous groups
    • managers and white-collar workers
    • able to influence some aspects of production but are denied control over others
  40. social closure
    any process whereby groups try to maintain exclusive control over resources, limiting access to them
Card Set
sociology 8