Chemistry Vocab Ch. 4&5

  1. Aufbau Principle
    In a ground state, atoms tend to fill in the lowest energy orbitals first; lowest levels first
  2. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    No 2 electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers; electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins
  3. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    You can either know the speed or location of a particle, not both. The act of observing one thing changes the other.
  4. Hund's Rule
    In a ground state, atoms tend to put a single electron into each orbital of a sublevel before adding a second electron to that orbital; up arrows before down
  5. Alkali Metals
    Group 1 elements minus hydrogen; most reactive metals
  6. Alkali Earth Metals
    Group 2 elements; second most reactive metals
  7. Transistion Metals
    Elements found in the d-block(f-block sometimes called transistion metals or inner transistion metals) have an incomplete d-sublevel
  8. Halogens
    Group 17 elements; most reactive nonmetals
  9. Noble Gases
    Group 18 elements; most unreactive elements; have a full outer shell(valence shell) of electrons
  10. Valence Electrons
    Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
  11. Wavelength
    The length between waves
  12. Frequency
    The rate at which waves pass
  13. Photons
    Particle of light; quanta of energy
  14. Quanta
    Minimun amount of energy gained or lost by an atom
  15. Ground State
    The state in which the atom has the lowest potential energy
  16. Excited State
    Higher than ground state
  17. Orbital
    Probable location to find electrons in an atom; can hold at most 2 electrons
  18. Ionization Energy
    Amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
  19. Electronegativity
    Attraction of an atom to an electron in a compund
Card Set
Chemistry Vocab Ch. 4&5
Chapter 4&5 vocab. (Electrons, light emission, etc.)