MedT Ch. 10

  1. Functions of Brain

    Thinking, personality, sensations, movements, memory
  2. Functions of Brain

    Relay station ("triage center") for sensory impulses; control of awareness and consciousness
  3. Functions of Brain

    Body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions, control of pituitary gland
  4. Functions of Brain

    Coordination of voluntary movements and balance
  5. Functions of Brain

    Connection of nerves (to the eyes and face)
  6. Functions of Brain

    Nerve fibers cross over, left to right and right to left; contains centers to regulate heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system
    Medulla oblongata
  7. neurotransmitter chemcial released at ends of nerve cells
  8. carries messages toward brain and spinal cord
    afferent nerve
  9. middle layer of the 3 membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
    arachnoid membrane
  10. type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
  11. nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
    autonomic nervous system
  12. microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
  13. blood vessles (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out
    blood-brain barrier
  14. lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord (includes pons and medulla oblongata)
  15. collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
    cauda equina
  16. part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
    cell body
  17. brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system (CNS)
  18. outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
    cerebral cortex
  19. circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  20. twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
    crainal nerves
  21. microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
  22. thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
    dura mater
  23. carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
    efferent nerve
  24. glial cell that lines membraines within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
    ependymal cell
  25. collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
    ganglion (ganglia)
  26. supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses
    glial cell (neuroglial cell)
  27. sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
    gyrus (gyri)
  28. three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  29. phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from teh central nervous system
    microglial cell
  30. carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
    motor nerve
  31. covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell; speeds impulse conduction along axons
    myelin sheath
  32. macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
  33. nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
  34. chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell
  35. glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
    oligodendroglial cell
  36. involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
    parasympathetic nerves
  37. essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system; of nervous system includes: brain, spinal cord, and neurons
  38. nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
    peripheral nervous system
  39. thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
    pia mater
  40. large, interlacing network of nerves
    plexus (plexuses)
  41. organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves
  42. nerves extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
    sciatic nerve
  43. carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
    sensory nerve
  44. 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
    spinal nerves
  45. agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
    stimulus (stimuli)
  46. connective and supporting tissue of an organ (glial cells to brain)
  47. depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
    sulcus (sulci)
  48. autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
    sympathetic nerves
  49. space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
  50. tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
    vagus nerve
  51. canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
    ventricles of the brain`
  52. cerebell/o
  53. cerebr/o
  54. dur/o
    dura mater
  55. encephal/o
  56. gli/o
    glial cells
  57. lept/o
    thin, slender
  58. mening/o, meningi/o
    membranes, meninges
  59. my/o
  60. myel/o
    spinal cord
  61. neur/o
  62. pont/o
  63. radicul/o
    nerve root (of spinal nerves)
  64. thalam/o
  65. thec/o
    sheath (refers to the meninges)
  66. vag/o
    vagus nerve
  67. alges/o, -algesia
    excessive sensitivity to pain
  68. -algia
  69. caus/o
  70. comat/o
    deep sleep (coma)
  71. esthesi/o, -esthesia
    feeling, nervous sensation
  72. kines/o, kinesi/o, -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic
  73. -lepsy
  74. lex/o
    word, phrase
  75. -paresis
  76. -phasia
  77. -plegia
  78. -praxia
  79. -sthenia
  80. syncop/o
    to cut off, cut short
  81. tax/o
    order, coordination
  82. abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain
  83. congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect)
    spina bifida
  84. vertebral defect is covered with skin and evident only on x-ray
    spina bifida occulta
  85. more severe form of spina bifida with cyst-like protrusions
    spina bifida cystica
  86. spina bifida case where the meninges protrudes to the outside of the body
  87. both spinal cord and meninges protrude outside of the body (form of spina bifida)
  88. brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning
    Alzheimer disease (AD)
  89. degenerative disorder or motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); also known as Lou Gehrig Disease
  90. chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
  91. seizures characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, and then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions (twitching and jerking movements of limbs)
    Tonic-clonic seizures; Grand mal; Ictal events
  92. minor form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of the person's surroundings
    Absence seizures; Petit mal seizures
  93. seizures that begin in the temporal lobe of the brain
    temporal lobe epilepsy
  94. most common type of seizure; cause a person to pause in whatever they are doing, become confused, and have memory problems
    Complex partial seizure
  95. hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in teh cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
    Huntington disease
  96. destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  97. autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
    myasthenia gravis (MG)
  98. paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
  99. degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement
    Parkinson disease
  100. involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words
    Tourette syndrome
  101. viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
    herpes zoster (shingles)
  102. inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis
  103. brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS
    human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy
  104. abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges
    brain tumor
  105. temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing within 24 hours
    cerebral concussion
  106. bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours
    cerebral contusion
  107. disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
    cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  108. type of stroke; blood clot (thrombus) in arteries leading to brain resulting in occlusion of the vessel
  109. type of stroke; an embolus (dislodged thrombus) travels to cerebral arteries and occludes a small vessel
  110. type of stroke; a blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs
  111. severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache
  112. enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA
  113. malignant tumor of stroctyes (glial brain cells)
  114. peculiar symptom or sensation occurring before the onset (prodomal) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure
  115. CNS neurotransmitter (deficient in Parkinson disease)
  116. relieving symptoms but not curing them
  117. removal of the thymus gland (a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest); used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
  118. samples of CSF are examined
    cerebrospinal fluid analysis
  119. x-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessel in the brain after injection of contrast material
    cerebral angiography
  120. x-ray technique that generates computerized multiple images of the brain and spinal cord
    computer tomography (CT) of the brain
  121. x-ray imgaing of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
  122. magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  123. radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of the cells
    positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  124. sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries
    Doppler ultrasound studies
  125. recording of the electrical activity of the brain
    electroencephalography (EEG)
  126. CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis
    lumbar puncture (LP)
  127. use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain
    stereotactic radiosurgery
Card Set
MedT Ch. 10
HLHS 101 Ch. 10: Nervous System