Psychology Chapter 5

  1. Memory
    The ability to store and retrieve information over time.
  2. Encoding
    The process by which we transform what we percieve, think, or feel into an enduring memory. Three types:

    Elaborative: The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.

    Visual Imagery: The process of storing new info by converting it into mental pictures.

    Organizational: The act of categorizing info by noticing the relationships among a series of items.
  3. Memory Storage
    The process of maintaining info in memory over time.
  4. Retrieval
    The process of bringing to mind info that has been previously encoded and stored.
  5. Sensory Memory Store
    The place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less. Two types:

    1.Iconic Memory: A fast-decaying store of visual info

    2. Echoic Memory: A fast-decaying store of auditory information
  6. Rehearsal
    The process of keeping info in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.
  7. Chunking
    Combining small pieces of info into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
  8. Working Memory
    Active maintenance of info in short-term storage
  9. Long-term memory Store
    A place in which info can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years
  10. Anterograde Amnesia
    The inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store.
  11. Retrograde Amnesia
    The inability to retrieve information that was a cquired before a particular date, usually the date of injury or operation.
  12. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
    Enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections.
  13. NMDA Receptor
    A hippocampal receptor site that influences the flow of info from one neuron to another across the synapse by controlling the initiation of long-term potentiation.
  14. Name of the sea slug that is useful to researchers because it has an extrememly simple nervous system that can be used to investigate the mechanisms of short and long term memory.
    Aplysia Californica
  15. Retrieval Cue
    External info that is associated with stored info that helps bring it to mind
  16. Encoding Specificity Principle
    The idea that retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was intially encoded.
  17. State-dependent Retrieval
    The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same satet during encoding and retrieval
  18. Transfer-Appropriate Processing
    The idea tha memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when we process information in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later.
  19. Divide Long term memory into categories.
    • 1. Explicit Memory: with conscious recall.
    • (a)Semantic Memory: Facts and general knowledge.
    • (b) Episodic Memory: Personally experienced events.

    • 2. Implicit Memory: Without conscious recall
    • (a) Procedural Memory: Motor and cognitive skills.
    • (b) Priming: Enhanced identification of objects or words
  20. The seven sins of memory:
    • 1.Transciense - forgetting over time
    • 2. Absent-mindedness: lapses in attention that result in forgetting
    • 3. Blocking: temporary inability to retrieve information
    • 4. Memory misattribution: confusing the sourse of a memory
    • 5. Suggestibility: incorporating misleading info into a memory
    • 6. Bias: the influence of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings ion recollections of the past.
    • 7. Persistence: recalling unwanted memories we would prefer to forget.
  21. Tip-of-the-tongue experience
    The temporary inability to retrieve info that is stored in memory, accompanied by the feeling that you're on the verge of recovering the information
  22. Source memory
    Knowing where and how info was acquired.
  23. False recognition
    A feeling of familiarity about something that hasnt been encountered before.
  24. Flashbulb Memories
    Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events
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Psychology Chapter 5