Microbiology Unit 4

  1. The different types of Immune
    • I Immediate Hypersensitivity such as to food or animal allergies
    • II Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity such as hemolytic diseases or ABO and blood transfusion
    • III Immune Complex such as autoimmune disorders such as RA and Grave's Disease
    • IV Cellular Hypersensitivity such as TB and contact dermatitis
    • Immunodeficiency Disorders such as AIDS/HIV, SCIDs, and agammaglobulinemia
  2. Immediate Hypersensitivity
    it is the harmful result of IgE antibodies made in response to allergens
  3. Allergen
    • can enter the body inhalation, ingestion, and injection
    • includes pollen, dust mites, mold, dander, antibiotic, drugs, food, vaccines or insect and snake bites
  4. Mechanism of allergens
    • Sensitization - IgE antibodies are made in response to foreign substances (antigen) attach to mast cells and basophils
    • on the second encounter to an antigen, the antigen attaches to sensitized mast cells and basophils
    • Cells release histamine which dilates the capillaries, contracts the bronchial smooth muscles, and increase mucus secretions causing itching, redness, and swelling
  5. 3 types of Immediate hypersensitivity
    • Localized
    • Anaphylactic
    • Respiratory anaphylaxis
  6. Localized hypersensitivity
    • it is an immediate hypersensitivity
    • aka atopy
    • if allergen enters the skin, there is redness, swelling, and itching
    • if inhaled, mucous membranes or respiratory tract becomes inflamed, runny nose, water eyes -> hay fever
    • if ingested, the digestive tract becomes inflamed causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rash
  7. Respiratory anaphylyaxis
    • skin reddening, itching, and hives
    • respiratory airways become constricted and filled with mucus such as asthma
    • can lead to anaphylactic shock
  8. Anaphylactic Shock
    • blood vessels dilate and there is a drop in blood pressure
    • edema in the wrist, ankles, and face
    • can lead to death
    • insect bites and stings are the most common
    • respiratory anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock must be treated immediately
    • epinephrine (epipen) acts by constricting blood vessels and relaxing smooth muscles of respiratory tract
  9. Tx of Allergies
    • desensitization - gradually increasing does of allergens
    • IgG blocking antibodies are produced against the allergen
  10. Cell mediated or Delayed hypersensitivity
    • reactions take more than 12 hours to develop
    • Mediated by T-Cells which release various lymphokines causing swelling, reddened area
    • includes contact dermatitis such as poison ivy, soap or metal allergies
    • includes TB skin testing - the skin test antigen causes a reaction of the dermis in sensitized person
  11. Cytotoxic Hypersensitvity
    • antibodies react with cell-surface antigens interpreted as foreign by the immune system
    • examples include mismatched blood transfusion, Rh incompatibility of mother and infant
  12. Transfusion reaction
    • if a patient receives RBC with a different antigen, IgM antibodies agglutinate foreign RBCs by clumping, a complement is activated and hemolysis occurs
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  13. Rh Factor
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  14. Immune Complex
    • are autoimmune disorders where the person becomes hypersensitive to antigen on cells of their own body
    • autoantibodies are antibodies that attack one's own tissue
    • genetic factors, diminished suppressor T cell function which accompanies aging, viruses, and stem cell defects
    • Some examples: RA, Lupus, Grave's Disease, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Rheumatic fever, and Type 1 Diabetes
  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • aka RA
    • inflammation and destruction of the joints
    • it is the antigen and antibody complex in the joints
  16. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    • antibody made to own DNA
    • affects many organs
    • kidney or wolf-like facial rash
    • immune complexes form in the tissue
  17. Grave's Disease
    • hyperthyroidsim
    • auto antibody
    • stimulates antibody to increase T4
    • bulging eyes and goiter are some symptoms
  18. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
    • hypothyroidism
    • destroys thyroid tissue
  19. Rheumatic fever
    • auto antibody to Beta Strep Group A
    • affects heart valves and kidneys
  20. Type 1 Diabetes
    • antibody destroys beta cells in the kidneys
    • beta cells cannot secrete insulin
  21. Immunodeficiency Disease
    • arises from lack of lymhocytes, defective lymphocytes or destruction of lymphocytes
    • includes agammaglobulinemia, HIV/AIDs, and SCIDs
  22. agammaglobulenima
    • it is an immunodeficiency disease where there is a lack of B-cells
    • found primarly in male infants
    • tx: give gamma globulin (IgG) to replacing missing antibodies, bone marrow stem cell transplant
  23. S
  24. Severe Combine Immunodeficiency Disease (SCIDs)
    • "boy in bubble" disease where a germ-free environment is needed
    • lack T-cell and B-cells
    • bone marrow transplant needed
  25. AIDS
    • autoimmune deficiency disorder syndrome
    • HIV infects the helper T cells and eventually destroys the majority, lack of activation of specific immunity
    • death from opportunistic secondary infections
  26. Transplant rejection
    • all human cells have a set of antigens due tot he Histocompatability Antigen aka Human leukocytes antigens (HLA)
    • same as the MHCI self antigens on all nucleated cells of the body
    • if the donor and recipient antigens are different, then recipient T-cells destroys the donor tissue causing transplant rejection
    • More successful if more MHCI antigens are a match then there is a less chance of attack
    • tissue transplant patients must stay on immunocompromised therapies for life to suppress T-cells (Cyclosporin A, Immuran)
  27. autograft
    • grafting from the same person on another part of the body to another
    • never rejected
  28. 150 graft
    • graft between identical twins
    • never rejected
  29. allograft
    • grafting from one species to another same species
    • variable successful
  30. xerograft
    • graft from 2 different species
    • rarely successful
    • anti-rejection -> antimitotic -> decrease lymphocytes productions
Card Set
Microbiology Unit 4
Immunology disorders