1. Explain how Pseudophedrine is and "indirect acting drug".
    • It is a sympathomimetic so it will do 1 of 2 things to allow more NE to hang out in the synapse
    • 1. inhibit the reuptake of NE
    • 2. increase the release of NE from the neuron

    both of these result in stimulation of either the alpha-1 or beta-1 receptors
  2. What combination of drugs would be used to treat a pheochromocytoma?
    A beta-adrenergic agonist with an alpha antagonist
  3. What is Epinephrine Reversal
    It refers to the ability of an alpha-1 agonist to reverse the vasoconstriction caused by high doses of Epi. This is why someone taking and alpha-1 will not have a pressor response to high doses of Epi.
  4. Which will have a greater therapeutic effect on heart rate and why?
    Prazosin or Phentolamine
    • Prazosin
    • As an alpha-1 antagonist it will cause vasodilation of vessels and there will be only a reflex increase in heart rate because the baroreceptors sense tone and the CNS will then activate an increase in parasympathetic firing resulting in vasodilation

    Phentolamine is a non selective alpha antagonist so it will vasodilate vessels (alpha-1) BUT! it will also increase sympathetic firing (alpha-2) which will cause an even greater increase in heart rate
  5. What effect does Demser (metyrosine) have on Epi & NE?
    Demser will decrease the synthesis of both Epi & NE
  6. What is the votlage sensing segment and where is it located?
    S4 is the voltage sensing segment it is located on the alpha-1 subunit of the L type VGCC
  7. Iontropic effect vs Chronotropic effect
    Ionotropic effect will effect stroke volume

    Chronotropic effect will effect heart rate
  8. GPCR for adrenergic receptors (a1,a2,b1,b2)
    • alpha 1- Gq
    • alpha 2- Gi
    • beta 1- Gs
    • beta 2- Gs
  9. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    *Site of Action*
    Proximal tubule
  10. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    *Electrolyte Imbalances*
    metabolic acidosis
  11. Osmotic Diuretics
    *Site of Action*
    Thin ascending loop & proximal tubule
  12. Loop Diuretics
    *Site of Action*
    Thick ascending limb
  13. Loop Diuretics
    *Electrolyte Imbalances*
    • hypokalemia
    • hypocalcemia
    • hypomagnesemia
    • increased uric acid levels
  14. Thiazide Diuretics
    *Site of Action*
    distal convoluted tubule
  15. Thiazide Diuretics
    *Electorlyte Imbalances*
    • hypokalemia
    • hypercalcemia
  16. Sodium Channel Blockers
    *Site of Action*
    • late distal tubule
    • collecting duct
  17. Sodium channel blockers
    *Electrolyte Imbalances*
  18. Aldoseterone Antagonist
    *Site of Action*
    • Late distal tubule
    • Collecting duct
  19. Aldosterone Antagonists
    *Electrolyte Imbalances*
  20. Loop Diuretics
    *Mechanism of Action*
    Compete with Cl ions to bind to the Na/K/2Cl transporter. When they bind and prevent the binding of Cl, the reabsorption of Na from the lumen is inhibited. Na is forced to enter the filtrate with water resulting in diuresis.
  21. Osmotoic diuretic
    *Mechanism of Action*
    Osmotic diuretics are non-reabsorbable polysachharides that will increase extracellular osmolality. This causes diuresis because water will follow the osmotic diuretics to try to reduce osmolality and they are excreted in the process
  22. Thiazide Diuretics
    *Mechanism of Action*
    Inhibit the Na/Cl symporter so the Na & Cl are being excreted into the filtrate instead of being reabsorbed
  23. Aldosterone Antagonists
    *Mechanism of Action*
    Blocks the binding of aldosterone to its receptors to prevent AIP (aldosterone induced protein) synthesis, so nothing will be able to activate the silent Na channels, so less Na is reabsorbed
  24. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    *Mechanism of Action*
    Blocks carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the lumen and intracellularly. A lack of CA intracellularly means that there are no H ions in the proximal tubule, so Na can't be absorbed because there will be no Na/H exchange. We basically deplete the stores of H ion which will inhibit Na reabsorption.
Card Set
Questions pertaining to the information learned in Pharmacology 1