ANP Certification Renal Flash Cards.txt

  1. What dietary changes should be made to limit azotemia?
    Limit protein to 1gm/kg/day Increase CHO. Limit Na
  2. How much fluid is a person allowed to have in renal failure, how is this calculated?
    Allowed to have 500 ml for insensible loss added to urine output from the prior day.
  3. What is the most common cause of renal failure?
    Diabetic Nephropathy
  4. Causes of intrinsic renal failure?
    Glomerulonephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, vascular disease, HTN
  5. Where does creatinine come from?
    End product of creatine metabolism from skeletal muscle
  6. What can Creatinine clearance approximate?
  7. What makes up the BUN?
    Breakdown of protein from dietary and other sources. Elevated BUN = uremia.
  8. What is BUN a good indicator of?
    Can note dehydration, diminished renal perfusion, and can be elevated from pre renal, renal, or post renal causes
  9. What is contraindicated in bilateral renal artery stenosis?
  10. What is an early indication of renal failure?
  11. How are ACEI renoprotective?
    Limit progression of renal impairment by reducing efferent arteriolar resistance
  12. What are some causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis causing Acute renal failure and what would BUN/Cr show and Urine show?
    Post streptococcal infection, autoimmune diseases. Will see greater than a 20:1 BUN/Cr ratio. UA: Renal Casts and RBC
  13. What are some causes of ATN causing Acute renal failure and what would BUN/Cr show and Urine show?
    Hypotension and Nephrotoxins can cause ATN. Will see BUN/Cr ratio of less than 20:1. UA: Granular Casts, renal tubular cells
  14. What are some causes of Acute interstitial nephritis causing Acute renal failure and what would BUN/Cr show and Urine show?
    Allergic Reaction, Drug Reaction. BUN/Cr ratio will be less than 20:1 and UA: WBC casts and eosinophils
  15. What can cause an increase in uric acid level greater than 7.0?
    Diuretics, gout, CRF, high protein diet, lymphoma, leukemia
  16. What race and sex is at greatest risk for kidney stones?
    White Males
  17. What medications can cause kidney stones?
    Excessive Vitamin C, excessive Vit D, calcium, steroids, acetazolamide (Diamox)
  18. What is the most common and second most common type of kidney stone?
    Calcium oxylate stone, then uric acid stones
  19. How is Calcium oxylate stone treated and diet restriction?
    Thiazide diuretics, hydration, Allopurinol, calcium binding agents and having adequate (yes adequate) intake of Calcium to help bind with free oxylate. A Restriction of oxalate-rich foods, such as chocolate, nuts, soybeans, rhubarb and spinach.
  20. How do thiazide diuretics work in calcium oxylate stones?
    Decreases urinary excretion of calcium
  21. What kidney stones are caused by hyperparathyroidism?
    Calcium Phosphate stones
  22. What causes struvite kidney stones?
    Due to infection
  23. What is postural proteinuria and how is it diagnosed?
    More protein is found in urine when standing erect. Therefore, test first morning urine and again a few hours later.
  24. What is considered oliguria?
  25. What is considered anuria?
    <100 ml/day
  26. When can activity return after renal biopsy?
    No strenuous activity x2 weeks
  27. What is checked to diagnose pheochromocytoma?
    24 hour urine for catecholamines and vanillylmadelic acide
  28. What is often the cause of glomerulonephritis?
    Immunological response, often post beta hemolytic streptococcal infection, SLE
  29. Side effects of thiazide diuretics?
    Hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, gout, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia
  30. How is urinary retention treated?
    Cholinergic such as urecholine, Anticholinesterase MG drugs.
  31. What urinary tract surgery will cause certain impotence?
    Total cystectomy. Removal of bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles occurs
Card Set
ANP Certification Renal Flash Cards.txt
ANP Certification Renal Flash Cards