CH4:Sensation & Perception

  1. color blindness (most common type)
    genetic disorder that prevents an individual from discriminating certain colors
  2. visual capture
    vision usually dominates when there is a conflict between senses
  3. photoreceptors
    modified neurons (rods & cones) that convert light energy to electrochemical neural impulses at the retina
  4. fovea
    tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina
  5. blind spot
    the point where the optic nerve exits the eye and where there are no photorecpetors, any stimulus that falls on this area cannot be seen
  6. selective attention
    focused awarness if only a limited aspect of all you are capable of experiencing
  7. bottom-up processing
    perceptual analysis that emphasizes characteristics of the stimulus, rather than our concepts & expectations
  8. top-down processing
    perceptual analysis that emphasizes the perceiver's expectations, concept memories, & other cognitive factors
  9. laws of perceptual grouping
    "laws" suggest how our brains prefer to group stimulus elements together to form a percept
  10. similarity
    gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together in our perceptions
  11. proximity
    gestalt principle that we tend to group objects together when they are near eachother
  12. continuity
    gestalt principle that we prefer perceptions if connected and continuous figures to disconnected and disjointed ones
  13. common fate
    gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion of destination
  14. binocular cues
    information taken in by both eyes that aids in depth perception
  15. monocular cues
    information about depth that relies on the input of just one eye
  16. perceptual set
    rediness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context
  17. ground
    part of a pattern that does not command attention; the background
  18. closure
    gestalt principle that identifies the tendency to fill gaps in figures & to see incomplete figures as complete
  19. gestalt psychology
    perception is shaped by innate factors built into the brain
  20. figure
    part of a pattern that commands attention, stands out against the ground
  21. perceptual constancy
    the ability to recognize the same object as remaining "constant" under different conditions
  22. pheromones
    chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of their species
  23. gustation
    sense of taste
  24. signal detection theory
    maintains that minimum threshold varies with fatigue, attention, expectations, motivations, & emotional distress & from one person to another
  25. subliminal stimulation
    recieving messages below one's absolute threshold
  26. cornea
    a transparent, curves layer in the front of the eye that bend incoming light rays
  27. iris
    colored muscle surrounding the pupil that regulates the size of the pupil opening
  28. pupil
    small adjustable opening in the iris that is smaller in bright light & larger in darkness
  29. opponent-process theory
    the idea that cells in the visual system process colors in complementary pairs
  30. trichromatic theory
    the idea that colors are sensed by three different types of cones sensative to light in the red, blue, & green wave lengths
  31. difference threshold
    minimum difference between any two stimuli that a person can detect 50% of the time
  32. lens
    structure behind the pupil that changes shape
  33. visible spectrum
    tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensative
  34. electromagnetic spectrum
    entire range of electromagnetic energy including radio waves, X rays, microwaves, & visible light
  35. absolute threshold
    the weakest level of a stimulus that can be correctly detected at least 50% the time
  36. perception
    process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensations, enabling you to recognize meaningful objects & events
  37. optic nerve
    bundle of neurons that carries visual information from the retina to the brain
  38. sensation
    process by which you detect physical energy from you environment & encode it as neural signals
  39. transduction
    transformation of the form of energy into another
  40. cones
    photorecpetors in the retina that are especially sensative to colors but not to dim light
  41. rods
    photoreceptors that detect black, white, & gray movement, sensitive to dim light
  42. weber's law
    difference thresholds increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus
  43. just noticeable difference
    experience of the difference threshold
  44. retina
    light sensative surface in the back of the eye containing rods & cones that transduce light energy
  45. sensory adaptation
    temporary decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus that occurs when stimulation is unchanging
  46. psychophysics
    the study of the relationship between physical energy & psychological experience
  47. basilar membrane
    thin strip of tissue sensitive to vibrations in the cochlea, contains hair cells connected to neurons
  48. feature detectors
    cells in the cortex that specialize in extracting certain features of a stimulus
  49. loudness
    a sensory characteristic of sound produced by the amplitude (intensity) of the sound wave
  50. vestibular sense
    • the sense of body orientation with respect to gravity
    • receptor sites: three semicircular canals in inner ear
  51. auditory nerve
    axons of neurons in the cochlea that transmit sound messages to the auditory cortex of the temporal lobe
  52. tympanic membrane
  53. gate control theory
    an explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural "gate" that can block incoming signal pain, in spinal cord
  54. olfaction
    sense of smell
  55. timbre
    the quality of a sound wave that derives from the wave's complexity
  56. pitch
    a sensory characteristic of sound produced by the frequency of the sound wave
  57. skin senses
    • sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, & pain
    • receptor site:nerve endings
    • connected to somatosensory cortex in the brain's parietal lobe
  58. cochlea
    • primary organ of hearing
    • a coiled tube in the inner ear where sound waves are transducted into nerve messages
  59. afterimages
    sensations that linger after the stimulus
  60. amplitude
    • physical strength of a wave
    • determines loudness
    • measured by decibels
  61. kinesthetic sense
    • overall orientation
    • controls voluntary & somatic nervous system
    • receptor sites: muscles & joints
  62. nerve (sensorineural) deafness
    occurs when the hair cells in the cochlea are damged usually by a loud noise, problem in inner ear
  63. conduction deafness
    an inability to hear resulting from damage to structures of the middle or inner ear
  64. frequency
    • number of cycles completed by a wave in a given amount of time (length of a wave)
    • determines pitch
    • measured in megahertz
  65. sound localization
    the process by which you determine the location of sound
Card Set
CH4:Sensation & Perception
Sensation & Perception