List 4 differences between LID and conventional development?
- Narrower streets
- Homes closer to roads
- More open space
- Stormwater control is more decentralized
- Big trees near road
- Winding roads
- Use of rain barrels/cisterns
From a water cycle perspective, what is the goal of LID?
Mimic hydrology of natural, pre-developed area
What does LID stand for?
Low Impact Development
Why are coastal stormwater regulations more stringent than stormwater regulations in other parts of the state?
- Shellfish water pollution
- Proximity to surface waters
What state agency regulates stormwater runoff?
NC Division of Water Quality
What purpose does the mulch in a rain garden serve?
- Looks nice
- Binds pollutants
- Carbon source for denitrification
- Soil structure
How much aerated soil between the bottom of a raingarden and the seasonal high water table is required?
What are the components of a wetpond?
- Aquatic shelf
Why aren’t permeable pavements typically used west of I-95?
Subsoils are slowly permeable
What is rainwater harvesting?
Process of capturing, storing and using rainwater for non-potable activities - if large enough can reduce runoff.
What are some benefits of riparian buffers other than nutrient load reductions?
- Stream shading
- wildlife and aquatic habitat
- sediment reduction
- bank stabilization
What N, P and TSS reduction percentage is achieved by wetponds?
25%, 40%, 85%
What N, P and TSS reduction percentage is achieved by wetlands?
40%, 40%, 85%
What N, P and TSS reduction percentage is achieved by rain gardens?
35%, 45%, 85% (RG no IWS);
What are the components of a stormwater wetland?
- shallow water
- shallow land
- deep pool
What are 5 common stormwater BMPs?
- Rain gardens
- Stormwater wetlands
- Permeable pavement
- Rainwater harvesting
What materials are lagoon liners made of?
List some potential environmental threats related to CAFOs that use anaerobic lagoons
- Over application of waste,
- Leaking lagoons
- Ruptured lagoons
- Fields with tile drains
- Volatilization of NH3
Why do silt loam soils have the highest plant available water?
Pore size distribution- not too small with too much suction, not too large to drain under gravity
Wastewater should be irrigated at rates to maintain soil moisture between ______ and _______.
- feild capacity
- wilting point
List 5 things a CAFO operator must keep in his records
- Waste management plan,
- Certified Operator-in-Charge,
- Sludge survey,
- Calibration of waste equipment,
- Soil sample analysis,
- Crop yield records,
- Stocking and mortality,
- Daily rainfall,
- Waste level,
- Waste Analysis,
- Waste application records,
- Weather conditions,
- Previous inspections
What are the setbacks from a lagoon or swine house to a property boundary?
What are the setbacks from a lagoon or swine house to an occupied church?
What are the setbacks from a lagoon or swine house to an occupied home?
What are the storage requirements for a hog waste lagoon
(what levels are needed beginning with the sludge accumulation to the lagoon berm top?
- Slude accumulation
- permanent liquid treatment
- temporary storage treatment
- 25-yr, 24-hr storage (5-9”)
- heavy rainfall factor
- freeboard (1 ft)
and E. coli?
- 93 mg/L
- 3.3 x 106cfu/100 mL
- 6.9 x 104 cfu/100 mL
What are some typical lagoon wastewater concentrations of BOD?
What are some typical lagoon wastewater concentrations of TKN?
What are the components of a typical hog waste system?
- Spray fields
Where are most hog CAFO’s located in the state?
What are CAFO’s?
Confined animal feeding operations
Why isn’t controlled drainage used more in the piedmont?