1. what 3 things must be present to have a wetland?
    • 1) Wetland soils
    • 2) wetland vegetation
    • 3) wetland hydrology
  2. 3 goals related to stream restoration
    • 1) Stream sinuosity (snaking) floodplain connectivity- wetland benefits
    • 2) aquatic habitat- for amphibians and fish;
    • 3) ripple and pool complexes- aquatic habitat and DO addition
  3. How do buffers remove phosphorus?
    • Plant uptake
    • Settle sediment
  4. Under what conditions will riparian buffers be effective at reducing NO3 loadings to surface waters via denitrification?

    under which conditions will they be ineffective?
    Water table close to roots

    water table much deeper than roots
  5. three mechanisms for nitrogen reduction by controlled drainage
    • Reduced water outflow
    • Denitrification
    • Improved crop yield (soil moisture)
  6. Three common agriculture BMPs
    • 1) Nutrient management
    • 2) Controlled drainage
    • 3) Restored wetlands
    • 4) Buffers
    • 5) Cover crops
  7. Why is sediment in surface waters a problem?
    • Clog drainage ways
    • Coat fish gills
    • Prevent light penetration and photosynthesis by SAV
    • Pollutants attached to sediment
  8. Three processes required for water erosion
    • Detachment
    • Transport
    • Deposition
  9. How is phosphorus typically transported to surface waters, what are some other pathways?
    • Erosion
    • Soluble P in surface layers
    • Leaching due to high P index
  10. Why do well drained soils lose more NO3 than poorly drained soils?
    • nitrate leaching
    • less dentrification
  11. Dentrification
    Nitrate into nitrogen
  12. Volatization
    Make into gas
  13. Nitrification
    Ammonia to nitrates
  14. Feshwater systems are typically ______ limited, while salt water systems are typically ____ limited. Why?
    Phosphorus, Nitrogen;

    Phosphorus is bound to sediment and not avalible until iron disolves in anarobic conditions of estuary and the chemical reaction with sea water rids the sites of Phosphorus

    Nitrogen is limited in salt waters because much Nitrogen is weakened or drawn out during transport to estuaries
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