1. macroevolution
    the pattern of evolution over large time scales
  2. 3 examples of macroevolutionary change
    • 1. origin of key biochemical processes such as photosynthesis
    • 2. emergence of first terrestrial vertebrates
    • 3. long-term impact of mass extinction on diversity of life
  3. earliest evidence of life
    3.5 bya
  4. production of very simple cells thru 4 steps
    • 1. abiotic (non-living) synthesis of small organic molecules: amino acids, nucleotides
    • 2. joining of these molecules into macromolecules including proteins and nucleotides
    • 3. packaging of these proteins into "protobionts," droplets w/membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of their surroundings
    • 4. the origin of self-replicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible
  5. earth's early atmosphere was
    reducing environment in which organic compounds formed from simple molecules
  6. Miller-Urey-type experiments demonstrate
    that abiotic synthesis of organic molecules possible
  7. 2 key properties of life
    • accurate replication
    • metabolism
  8. protobionts
    collections of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by membrane-like structure
  9. first genetic material probably
    RNA not DNA
  10. RNA
    protein synthesis, enzyme-like catalyst functions (ribozyme)
  11. strata
    sedimentary rock layers
  12. half life of C-14
    5730 years
  13. tetrapod
    having 4 limbs
  14. stromatolites
    layered rocks that form when certain prokaryotes bind thin films of sediment together
  15. cyanobacteria
    oxygen-releasing, photosynthetic bacteria
  16. eukaryotic cells have
    nuclear envelope, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton
  17. endosymbiosis
    mitochondria and plastids were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells
  18. serial endosymbiosis
    mitochondria evolved before plastids through sequence of endosymbiotic events
  19. the most widespread and diverse land animals are
    arthropods (insects and spiders) and tetrapods
  20. key feature of nearly all prokaryotes is
    the cell wall
  21. capsule
    sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein, which allows prokaryote to adhere to substrate or to other individuals in a colony
  22. fimbrae (attachment pili)
    hair-like protein appendages used to attach to substrate or one another
  23. taxis
    movement towards/away from stimulus
  24. prokaryotes lack
    membrane-bounded nucleus
  25. plasmid
    small rings of separately replicating DNA
  26. ecndospore
    when it copies its chromosome and surrounds it with tough wall. H2O removed, metabolism halts, remains dormant yet viable for a long time, hard to kill
  27. prokaryotes do/do not produce sexually
    do not
  28. in transformation, genotype and possibly phenotype of a prokaryotic cell are
    altered by uptake of foreign DNA from its surroundings
  29. in transduction,
    bacteriophages carry bacterial genes from one host cell into another
  30. in conjugation,
    genetic material is transferred b/w 2 bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
  31. the F factor
    consists of about 25 genes, most required for production of sex pili
  32. R plasmids carry
    resistance genes
  33. obligate aerobes
    use O2 for cellular respiration
  34. obligate anaerobes are
    poisoned by O2
  35. anaerobic respiration
    substances other than O2 accept e- at downhill end of e- transport chains
  36. facultative anaerobes
    use O2 if present but can also carry out anaerobic respiration of fermentation in an anaerobic environment
  37. nitrogen fixation
    convert atmospheric nitrogen to NH3
  38. heterocytes can only do
    N2 fixation
  39. biofilm
    surface-coating colonies
  40. methanogens
    use CO2 to oxidize H2 -> releasing methane as a waste product
  41. symbiosis
    ecological relationship in which 2 species live in close contact w/one another
  42. parasitism
    ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents, tissues, or body fluids of its host
  43. disease causing parasites
  44. exotoxins
    proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms
  45. endotoxins
    lipopolysaccharide components of outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
  46. bioremediation
    the use of organisms to remove pollutants from air, soil, water
  47. viruses are/are not cells
    are not
  48. capsid
    protein shell enclosing the viral genome built from capsomeres
  49. viral envelopes
    are derived from membranes of host cell, contain host cell phospholipids and membrane proteins
  50. bacteriophage
    viruses that infect bacteria
  51. host range
    specific variety of hosts that viruses can infect
  52. virulent phage
    phage that reproduces only by lytic cycle
  53. restriction enzymes...
    cut up DNA identified as foreign, restrict the ability of the phage to infect the bacterium
  54. lytic cycle
    kills host
  55. lysogenic cycle
    doesn't kill host
  56. prophage
    when viral DNA integrated into bacterial chromosome
  57. retroviruses
    RNA animal viruses w/most complicated reproductive cycles
  58. reverse transcriptase
    transcribes RNA template into DNA, providing RNA -> DNA, which is opposite of usual direction
  59. 3 ways that viruses burt on human scene
    • 1. mutation of existing viruses
    • 2. dissemination of a viral disease from a small, isolated human population
    • 3. spread of existing viruses from other animals
  60. viral disease of plants spread 2 ways
    • 1. horizontal transmission: infected from an external source
    • 2. vertical transmission: infection by a parent
  61. viroid
    circular RNA molecules that infect plants
  62. prion
    infections proteins which appear to cause a number of degenerate brain diseases in various animal species.
  63. why prions are dangerous
    long incubation time, virtually indestructible
  64. bioinformatics
    application of computational methods to the storage and analysis of biological data
  65. physical map
    distances b/w markers expressed by some physical measure, usually #base pairs along the DNA.
  66. physical map made by
    cutting DNA of each chromosome into a # of restriction fragments then determining the original order of the fragments in the chromosomal DNA
  67. proteomics
    systematic study of full protein sets encoded by genomes
  68. pseudogenes
    former genes that have accumulated mutations over time and become non-functional
  69. repetitive DNA
    consists of sequences that are present in multiple copies of the genome
  70. transposable elements
    stretches of DNA that can move from one location to another within genome
  71. transposons
    move within genome by means of a DNA intermediate
  72. retrotransposons
    move by means of RNA intermediate that is a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA
  73. simple sequence DNA
    contains many copies of tandemly repeated short sequences
  74. multigene families
    collections of 2 or more identical/very similar genes
  75. homeobox
    180-nucleotide sequence that specifies a 60-amino acid homeodomain in the encoded proteins
  76. zoospores
    flagellated spores
  77. heteromorphic
    the sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different
  78. isomorphic
    the sporophytes and gametophytes look similar
  79. Unikonta includes
    opisthokont, amoebozoan
  80. Archaeplastida includes
    • red algae
    • green algae
    • land plants
  81. Rhizaria includes
    • forams
    • radiolarians
    • chlorarachniophytes
  82. Chromalveolata includes
    • alveolata
    • stramenopiles
  83. excavata includes
    • diplomonads
    • parabasalids
    • euglenozoa
  84. alveolata include
    • dinoflagellates
    • apicomplexans
    • ciliates
  85. stramenopiles include
    • diatoms
    • golden algae
    • brown algae
    • oomycetes
  86. amoebozoans include
    slime molds, gymnamoebas, entamoeba
  87. plasmodium
    a single mass of cytoplasm that is undivided by plasma membranes and that contains many diploid nuclei
  88. producers
    organisms that use energy from light (or inorganic chemicals) to convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds
  89. charophytes share 4 distinctive traits with land plants
    • 1. rosette-shaped cellulose-synthesizing complexes
    • 2. peroxisome enzymes
    • 3. flagellated sperm
    • 4. formation of a phragmoplast
  90. bryophytes do/do not have an extensive transport systems and include
    do not

    • liverworts
    • hornworts
    • mosses
  91. seedless vascular plants include
    lycophytes and pterophytes
  92. grade
    a collection of organisms that share a common level of biological organization or adaptation
  93. seed
    an embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat
  94. seed plants include
    gymnosperms and angiosperms
  95. rhizoids
    long, tubular cingle cells (in liverworts and hornworts) and filaments of cells (in mosses) that anchor gametophyte
  96. stomata
    allow the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the outside air and the sporophyte interior, water evaporates from here
  97. xylem conducts
    most of the water and minerals
  98. phloem distributes
    sugars, amino acids, organic products
  99. most seedless vascular plants are homosporous/heterosporous
  100. integument
    envelops and protects the megasporangium
  101. sepals
    usually green and enclose the flower before it opens
  102. stamens
    produce microspores
  103. anther
    where pollen is produced
  104. carpels
    make megaspores
  105. fungi do/do not ingest their food
    do not
  106. hyphae
    network of tiny filaments
  107. mycelium
    interowven mass that infiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds
  108. septa
    the hyphae are divided into cells by these cross-walls
  109. plasmogamy
    the union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycelia
Card Set