Presented a neutral stimulus (bell) just before an unconditioned stimulus (food). The neutral stimulus became a conditioned stimulus by being pained with the unconditioned stimulus. Subsequently, the conditioned stimulus(bell) by itself was able to elicit the dog’s salivation.
Watson and Little Albert
Little infant played with the rat and was not afraid until one day a loud noise sounded. After seven pairings of the rat and the loud noise, Albert became afraid of the rat. He generalized to a rabbit, dog, and sealskin coat
Schedule of reinforcements
Timetables that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
A behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.
Following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
Following a behavior with the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
Follows a behavior only a portion of the time.
A behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus
A behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed from it.
Also called instrumental conditioning, a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. B.F. Skinner.
4 Processes by Albert Bandera
Attention: Must attend to what the model is saying or doing.
Retention: Must code the information and keep it in the memory so that we can retrieve it.
Motor reproduction: imitating model action's.
Reinforcement: Encouragement to continue practicing behavior
Generalization (Classical conditioning)
The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
We do not relearn how to drive everytime we drive on new roads/with a new car
Discrimination (Classical Conditioning)
The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others.
Pavlov only gave dog food after bell, not after any other sound so the dog could distinguish between the bell and other sounds.
Cat needs to know difference between little fish and piranha
Extinction (Classical conditioning)
The weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous Recovery (Classical conditioning)
The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay without further conditioning.
Generalization (Operant Conditioning)
The tendency to give the same response to a similar stimulus.
Having good dating results from people who dress well in comparison to people who dress poorly. Seeking people who dress well based on results.
Discrimination (Operant Conditioning)
The tendency to respond to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.
Seeing eye dogs in uniform vs. not in uniform.
Extinction (Operant Conditioning)
The situation where, because a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, there is a decreased tendency to perform the behavior.
Quit receiving positive feedback from management for compliments, quit asking for compliments.
A classical conditioning procedure for weakening a conditioned response by associating the fear-provoking stimulus with a new response that is compatible with fear.
A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of the problem's solution.
Law of Effect
Behaviors are followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
Cat in box, opens when finds latch and opens more quickly after several correct attempts.