1. Two types of host defense systems
    Innate and Adaptive Immunity
  2. First line of defense; nonspecific; always present
    Innate Immunity
  3. Specific or acquired defense
    Adaptive Immunity
  4. Two major classes of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity
    B and T cells
  5. Lymphocyte most responsible for the clearance of extracellular microbes
    B cells
  6. Lymphocyte population most responsible for the clearance of intracellular microbes
    T cells
  7. Classes of T cells
    Helper, Cytolytic, and Regulatory
  8. Substance, usually foreign, that reacts with an antibody
  9. Substance, usually foreign, that elicits an immune response
  10. Lymphocyte population that secretes antibodies
    B cells (plasma cells)
  11. Lymphocyte population that directly kills infected cells
    Cytotoxic T cells
  12. Lymphocyte population that helps B cells make antibodies
    T helper cells
  13. Lymphocyte population that helps activate macrophages
    T helper cells
  14. Active immunity that is naturally acquired
    Recovery from infection
  15. Active immunity that is artificially acquired
  16. Passive immunity that is naturally acquired (2)
    • Placental transfer of IgG
    • Breast feeding of IgA
  17. Passive immunity that is artificially acquired
    Injection of immune globulin
  18. Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has not yet engaged antigen
    Naive Lymphocyte
  19. Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has been activated by antigen
    Effector Lymphocyte
  20. Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that is long-lived and ready to rapidly respond to antigen on the second/subsequent exposures
    Memory Lymphocyte
  21. Secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to blood-borne antigens
  22. Secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to tissue-borne antigens (4)
    • Lymph Nodes
    • MALT
    • GALT
    • BALT
  23. Major cell types involved in innate immunity (4)
    • Granulocytes
    • Macrophages
    • Dendritic Cells
    • NK Cells
  24. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
  25. Primary lymphoid tissue (2)
    • Bone Marrow
    • Thymus
  26. Anatomic location where stem cells reside
    Bone Marrow
  27. Anatomic location of B cell maturation
    Bone Marrow
  28. Anatomic site of T cell maturation
  29. Cells that capture and present peptides to T cells
    Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC)
  30. Professional antigen-presenting cells (4)
    • Dendritic Cells
    • Macrophages
    • B Cells
    • FDC
  31. Response to first exposure to an antigen
    Primary Immune Response
  32. Response to repeat encounters with the same antigen
    Secondary Immune Response
  33. Major antibody produced in serum during primary immune response
  34. Major antibody produced in serum during secondary immune response
  35. Anatomic location of T cells in lymph nodes
  36. Anatomic location of B cells in lymph nodes
    Follicle (cortex)
  37. Anatomic location of T cells in spleen
    Periarteriolar Sheath
  38. Specialized venules in lymph nodes where T cells enter
    High Endothelial Venules
  39. Cellular receptors for microbial antigens on innate immune cells
    Pathogen Recognition Receptors
  40. LPS, Peptidoglycan, Lipteichoic Acid, Viral RNA, Fungal Mannans
    Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns
  41. General characteristics of innate immunity
    No induction period, specificity, or memory
  42. Extensive physical barrier to infection
    Epithelial lining of portals of entry
  43. Most active phagocytic cell and most abundant circulating WBC
  44. Neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
    Phagocytic Cells
  45. Lysozyme, reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide
    Microbicidal molecules of phagocytes
  46. Enzyme responsible for production of reactive oxygen species
    Phagocyte Oxidase
  47. Pro-inflammatory cytokines that target endothelium, among others (2)
    • TNF
    • IL-1
  48. Adhesion molecules expressed on endothelium that mediate rolling of leukocytes
    E and P selectins
  49. Adhesion molecules expressed on leukocytes that mediate tethering of leukocytes
  50. Lymphocytes of innate immunity that provide early defense against viral infections
    NK cells
  51. Major source of interferon-gamma (IFN) in innate immune response
    NK cells
  52. Structural domains found on inhibitory receptors of NK cells
  53. Structural domains found on activating receptors of NK cells
  54. Intraepithelial lymphocytes that are early sentinels of bacterial infections
    Gamma delta T cells
  55. Activator of classical pathway of complement
    Antibody Binding to C1q
  56. Activator of alternative pathway of complement
    Binding to C3b to microbial surfaces
  57. Activator of lectin pathway of complement
    Terminal mannose residues of microbial glycoproteins
  58. Major opsonin generated by complement activation
  59. Pro-inflammatory molecules generated by complement activation (2)
    • C3a
    • C5a
  60. Polymeric protein complex that lyses microbes
    Membrane Attack Complex (MAC); C6-9
  61. Cytokines that activate endothelium (2)
    • TNF
    • IL-1
  62. Class of cytokines that increase integrin affinity and are chemotacic
  63. Cytokine that induces interferon-gamma production by NK cells and T cells
  64. Cytokine that activates macrophages
  65. Anti-viral cytokines
    IFN alpha/beta (Type 1 IFNs)
  66. Cytokine that downregulates immune responses
  67. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines (3)
    • TNF
    • IL-1
    • IL-6
  68. Inducers of the acute phase response (3)
    • IL-6
    • TNF
    • IL-1
  69. Induces proliferation of plasma cells
  70. C-reactive protein, mannose-binding lectin and others
    Acute Phase Proteins
  71. Signals generated by innate immune response to stimulate lymphocytes (3)
    • B7
    • C3d
    • IL-12
  72. Substances given with vaccines that stimulate immune responses
  73. Neutrophils, Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Eosinophils
    Cells quantified on a CBC
  74. Processed peptides bound to MHC molecules
    T cell antigens
  75. Recognition by T cells of peptides bound to one's own MHC molecules
    MHC restriction
  76. Dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells
    Professional APC's
  77. Another name for an immature dendritic cell in the skin
    Langerhans Cell
  78. Transports antigen from epithelia to draining lymph node
    Dendritic cells
  79. Destination of antigens captured in epithelia and sub-epithelial tissues (4)
    • Lymph nodes
    • MALT
    • GALT
    • BALT
  80. Destination of blood-borne pathogens
  81. Microbial-induced activators of dendritic cells (3)
    • TNF
    • IL-1
    • TLR Signaling
  82. Destination of dendritic cells in lymph nodes
    T cell zones
  83. Chemical signal that attracts activated dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes
    Chemokines that bind to CCR7 on dendritic cell
  84. Afferent lymphatic vessel--lymph node--efferent lymphatic vessel
    Flow of lymph through a draining lymph node
  85. Human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins
    HUman Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
  86. Genes that encode the Class I MHC molecules
    HLA-A, B, C
  87. Cells that express Class I MHC molecules
    All nucleated cells
  88. Genes that encode the Class II MHC molecules
    HLA-DP, DQ, and DR
  89. Cells that express Class II MHC molecules
    Professional APCs
  90. Set of MHC alleles present on each chromosome
    MHC Haplotype
  91. MHC molecules that are recognized by CD8+ T cells
    Class I
  92. MHC molecules that are recognized by CD4+ T cells
    Class II
  93. Domains of peptide-binding groove of MHC Class I molecules (2)
    • alpha1
    • alpha2
  94. CD8 binding site of MHC class I molecules
  95. Domains of peptide-binding groove of MHC class II molecules (2)
    • alpha1
    • beta1
  96. CD4 binding site of MHC Class II molecule
  97. Source of antigens for MHC Class I molecules
    Endogenous Cytosolic Proteins
  98. Source of antigens for MHC Class II molecules
  99. Site of peptide loading for MHC Class I molecules
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  100. Site of peptide loading for MHC Class II molecules
  101. Enzymes that generate peptides for MHC Class I molecules
  102. Enzymes that generate peptides for MHC Class II molecules
    Proteases in vesicles
  103. T cell population that responds to peptide: MHC Class II molecules
    CD4+ T cells
  104. T cell population that responds to peptide: MHC Class I molecules
    CD8+ T cells
  105. Two heavy chains and two light chains
    Ig or B cell receptor
  106. Antigen-binding domains of a B cell receptor (BCR)
    • VH
    • VL
  107. Predominant version of T cell receptor in adaptive immunity
    alpha beta receptor
  108. Antigen-binding domains of the T cell receptor (TCR)
    • Valpha
    • Vbeta
  109. Signaling molecules of BCR complex (2)
    • Igalpha
    • Igbeta
  110. Signaling molecules of TCR complex
    CD3 and ζ (zeta)
  111. Complexes of peptide: MHC molecules
    T cell antigen
  112. Proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, small chemicals
    B cell antigens
  113. Cells whose antigen receptors are both membrane bound and secreted
    BCR/Immunoglobulins (Ig)
  114. Portion of Ig molecule that binds antigens
  115. Portion of Ig molecule that binds complement
  116. Portion of Ig molecule that binds to macrophages
  117. Number of antigen binding sites on the TCR
  118. Most abundant antibody in the bloodstream
  119. IgG heavy chain
    γ (gamma)
  120. Antibody found in GI tract, colostrum, sweat, tears, saliva
    Dimeric IgA
  121. IgA heavy chain
  122. Pentameric antibody that potently activates complement
  123. IgM heavy chain
    μ (mu)
  124. Only antibody that crosses the placenta
  125. Major class of antibody directed at helminth infections
  126. IgE heavy chain
    ε (Epsilon)
  127. Classes of antibody that serve as BCR on naive B cells (2)
    • IgD
    • IgM
  128. IgD heavy chain
    δ (delta)
  129. Antibody that activates mast cells
  130. Opsonizing antibodies (2)
    • IgG
    • IgA
  131. Two classes of Ig that possess a J chain
    • IgM
    • sIgA
  132. Half-life of IgG
    21 days
  133. Derivation of antibodies from a single clone of B lymphocytes that have identical antigen specificity
    Monoclonal Antibody
  134. Ig light chains (2)
    • κ (kappa)
    • λ (lambda)
  135. Portion of Ig molecule that determines isotype
    Heavy Chains
  136. Activated and differentiated B cell that secretes antibody
    Plasma Cells
  137. Gene segments in variable regions of Ig heavy chain and TCR beta chain (3)
    • V
    • D
    • J
  138. First recombination event in BCR heavy chain and TCR beta chain
    D-J joining
  139. Ig light chain and TCR alpha chain gene segments in variable regions (2)
    • V
    • J
  140. Rearrangment of V, D, and J segments
    Somatic Recombination
  141. Process that ensures expression of BCR with single specificity
    Allelic Exclusion
  142. Change of Ig class but preservation of antigen specificity
    Isotype Switching
  143. Nucleotide changes in variable regions of Ig genes affecting affinity for antigen
    Somatic Hypermutation
  144. Enzymes responsible for somatic recombination
    VDJ Recombinase (RAG-1 & RAG-2)
  145. Number of CDRs in an intact TCR
  146. Total number of V-(D)-J combinations
    Combinatorial Diversity
  147. Number of CDRs in an intact BCR
  148. Stage of B cell with no detectable recombination events
    Pro-B cell
  149. Stage of B cell with recombined H chain and μ RNA and surrogate light chains
    Pre-B cell
  150. Stage of B cell with IgM expressed on surface
    Immature B cell
  151. Stage of B cell with IgM and IgD expressed on surface
    Mature B cell
  152. Stage of T cell with no recombined beta chain
    Double negative thermocyte; Pro-T cell
  153. Stage of T cell with recombined beta chain and expressed pre-Talpha
    Pre-T cell
  154. Stage of T cell with expressed TCR adn both CD4 and CD8
    Double-positive T cell; Immature T cell
  155. Weak recognition of MHC Class II + self-peptide
    Positive selection for CD4+
  156. Weak recognition of MHC Class I + self-peptide
    Positive selection for CD8+
  157. No recognition of MHC + self-peptide
    Failure of positive selection
  158. Strong recognition of MHC + self-peptide
    Negative selection
  159. Intracellular location of phagocytized microbes
    Vesicles (phagolysosome)
  160. Location of most intracellular pathogens that have invaded cells
  161. T cell accessory molecule that binds co-stimulators
  162. T cell accessory molecule involved in negative regulation of activated T cells
  163. APC molecule that provides second signal to T cells
  164. T cell accessory molecules involved in signal transduction (4)
    • CD4
    • CD8
    • CD3
    • ζ (zeta)
  165. T cell accessory molecules involved in adhesion (2)
    • LFA-1
    • VLA-4
  166. Substances that induce expression of co-stimulators on APCs
  167. Autocrine cytokine that promotes T cell proliferation
  168. Region of contact between APC and T cell
    Immunologic Synapse
  169. Anatomical site of activation of T cells by APCs
    Paracortex of lymph nodes
  170. Tyrosine motifs on CD3 and ζ (zeta) chains involved in signaling
  171. Tyrosine kinase that triggers several signaling pathways
  172. High affinity version of the IL-2 receptor
  173. T cell population that defends against intracellular microbes
  174. Cytokines that drive development of Th1 cells (2)
    • IL-12
    • IFNγ
  175. Signature cytokines of Th1 cells (3)
    • Interferon-γ
    • TNF
    • IL-2
  176. T cell population that defends against extracellular microbes
  177. Cytokine that drives development of Th2 cells
  178. Signature cytokines of Th2 cells (3)
    • IL-4
    • IL-5
    • IL-13
  179. T cell population involved in inflammatory disorders
  180. Signature cytokines of Th17 (2)
    • IL-17
    • IL-22
  181. Cytokine that inhibits T cell activation
  182. Cytokine that induces B cell switching to produce IgE
  183. Cytokine that activates eosinophils
  184. T cell population that drives activation of macrophages and production of some classes of antibodies
  185. T cell population that drives production of some classes of antibodies
  186. T cell population that directly kills infected cells
  187. Ligand expressed on CD4+ T cells that makes APC better at stimulating T cells
  188. Defense against ingested microbes
    Th1 cells
  189. Defense against infected cells with microbes in cytoplasm
  190. Anatomical site of activation of naive T cells
    Lymphoid Organs
  191. Anatomical site of antigen elimination by effector T cells
    Peripheral Tissues
  192. Homing molecules on activated T cells (4)
    • E- and P-selectin Ligand
    • LFA-1
    • VLA-4
    • CXCR3
  193. Homing molecules on naive T cells (3)
    • L-selectin
    • LFA-1
    • CCR7
  194. Immune-mediated tissue damage
  195. Effector cell of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)
  196. Major cytokine that activates macrophages to kill ingested microbes
  197. Skin test that detects DTH response to Mycobacteria
  198. Time frame to elicit a DTH reaction
    24-48 hours
  199. Mechanisms of damage in DTH (3)
    • Macrophages
    • CTLs
    • Granulomatous Inflammation
  200. Chronic CMI response to TB
  201. Defense against helminth infections
    IgE and IL-5-activated eosinophils
  202. Enzymes that cleave and activate caspases
  203. Protein necessary for delivery of Granzymes into target cells
  204. Mechanism of CTL-mediated killing of target cell
  205. Cytokines that inhibit microbicidal activity of macrophages (3)
    • IL-4
    • IL-10
    • IL-13
  206. Activating signals for CTLs
    Antigen recognition and firm adhesion
  207. Viral-induced mechanism of immune evasion
    Inhibit antigen presentation
  208. Mycobacteria-induced mechanism of immune evasion
    Inhibit phagolysosome fusion
  209. T-dependent antigens
  210. Polysaccharides, lipids, small chemicals, nucleic acids
    T-independent antigens
  211. B cell population that resides in follicles of lymph nodes
    Follicular B cells
  212. B cell population that resides in marginal zones of spleen
    Marginal Zone B (MZB) cells
  213. B cell population that resides in mucosa and peritoneum
    B-1 B cells
  214. B cell populations that produce primarily IgM (2)
    • MZB cells
    • B-1 B cells
  215. Major antibody produced in primary response
  216. Major antibody produced in secondary response (3)
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgE
  217. Components of B cell co-receptor complex (3)
    • CR2 (CD21)
    • CD19
    • CD81
  218. Components of B cell antigen-receptor complex (3)
    • BCR
    • Igalpha
    • Igbeta
  219. Ligand for CR2
    C3d (and iC3b)
  220. Anatomical site of activation of naive B cells
    B cell zones of lymphoid tissues
  221. Mechanism of helper T cell-induced activation of B cells
    CD40L and cytokines
  222. Effector mechanism of B cells in humoral immunity
    Secretion of antibodies
  223. Inducers of heavy chain isotope switching
    CD40L and cytokines
  224. Basis of X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome
    Defective CD40L
  225. Enzyme that induces switch recombination
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID)
  226. Major cytokine that induces switchin gto IgG
  227. Major cytokine that induces switching to IgE
  228. Major cytokine that induces switching to IgA
  229. Process that increases affinity of antibody for antigen
    Affinity Maturation
  230. Anatomical site where affinity maturation occurs
    Germinal centers of lymphoid follicles
  231. Enzyme that results in numerous point mutations in Ig genes
  232. Mechanism of affinity maturation
    Somatic Hypermutation
  233. This type of antigen induces primarily an IgM response
    T-independent antigens
  234. This type of antigen results in isotype switching
    T-dependent antigens
  235. Receptor that mediates antibody feedback
    FcγRII receptor
  236. Most important antibody for complement activation
    IgM > IgG
  237. Primary antibody for defense against helminths
  238. Antibody that provides mucosal immunity
  239. Antibody that crosses the placenta to protect neonates
  240. Major opsonizing antibody
  241. Neutralizing antibodies (2)
    • IgG
    • IgA
  242. Antibody that mediates mast cell degranulation
  243. Binds to dimeric IgA and facilitates transcytosis
    Poly-Ig Receptor
  244. NK cell-mediated killing of IgG-coated cells
    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
  245. Fc receptor involved in ADCC
    FcγRIII (CD16)
  246. Fc receptor involved in mast cell degranulation
  247. Fc receptor involved in down-regulation of B cell activity
    FcγRIIB (CD32)
  248. Fc receptor involved in transporting IgG from blood to extracellular spaces
  249. C3 convertase of classical pathway
  250. Complement products that are chemotactic
    C5a > C3a, C4a
  251. C3 convertase of alternative pathway
  252. Stabilizes C3bBb complex on pathogen surface
  253. Components of membrane attack complex
  254. C5 convertase of classical pathway
  255. C5 convertase of alternative pathway
  256. Component of MAC that polymerizes
  257. Complement product that is an opsonin
  258. Deficiency of this complement regulatory protein results in Hereditary Angioneurotic Edema
    C1 inhibitor
  259. Host protein that displaces Bb from C3b
    Decay accelerating factor
  260. Proteins unique to the alternative pathway of complement (3)
    • Properdin
    • Factor B
    • Factor D
  261. Type of immune protection induced by bacterial vaccines
  262. Type of immune protection from live attenuated viral vaccines (2)
    Antibodies and CMI
  263. Type of immune protection from subunit vaccines
  264. Type of immune protection from conjugate vaccines
  265. Type of immune protection from synthetic vaccines
  266. Mechanism of immune evasion by altering surface antigens recognized by immune system
    Antigenic Variation
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