physical examination technique consisting of a systematic inspection of the oral structures
the oral examination allows the clinician to gather general information on the health of a patient, note _____ indications of some _______, and detect _______ and potentially ______ _____ malignancies at an _____ stage.
- life threatening
when detect at the earliest stages, oral cancer has a ____% survival rate
oral cancers is the ______ deadliest cancer in the united states
the ______ is the most common site for oral cancer
______ is less common than _______ but with greater potential for becoming cancerous
what are some signs and symptoms the patient may report?
- numbness in tongue or other area
- feeling something is caught in throat
- difficulty chewing or swallowing
- ear pain
- difficulty moving jaw or tongue
- swelling in the jaw
white or red lesions should be reevaluated in ___ weeks
any white or red lesion that does not resolve itself in ____ weeks should be _____ to obtain a definitive diagnosis
what are the three pairs of glands that produce saliva?
- parotid glands
- submandibular glands
- sublingual glands
the ______ gland is the larges of the salivary glands
where does the parotid glad open in the oral cavity?
opposite the maxillary first molar
where does the submandibular gland open into the oral cavity?
floor of mouth into the sublingual caruncles
where does the sublingual gland open into the oral cavity?
- sublingual caruncle (same as submandibular)
- also open along fold of tissue beneath the tongue (sublingual fold)
what are the normal findings of the lips and vermillion border?
- at rest the lips normally touch
- the surface of lips is smooth and intact with normal color and texture
- the vermillion border is even and not raised
what are the normal findings of the mucosal surfaces?
- smooth intact and coral pink to bluish brown in color
- no lesions
- minor salivary glands in the lips feel like small beads when palpated
- intact frenum on maxillary and mandibular arches
- normal variations: fordyce's grandules
what are the normal findings of the lips and cheeks?
- firm tissue
- moist tissue
- intact tissue
what are the normal findings for the floor of the mouth?
- sublingual fenulum
- sublingual caruncles on either side of frenulum
what is the normal findings of the salivary gland function
normal flow of saliva
what are the normal findings of the tongue?
- moist pink may have frecklelike pigmentation
- papillae present
- symmetrical appearance
what are the normal findings of the ventral surface of the tongue?
lingual veins are distinct, raised linear structures on ventral surface of the tongue; enlarged vessels relating to aging may result in lingual varicosities
what are the normal findings of the dorsal surface of the tongue?
median groove, filiform, fungiform, cirumvallate papillae; network of grooves may be pronounced with advancing age
what are the normal findings of the lateral surface of the tongue?
foliate papillae; scalloped outline from being pressed into embrasure spaces
what are the normal findings of the palate, tonsils and oropharynx?
- hard palate: mucosa is firmly attached to the bone; pale pink in color with a bluish hue to brown; palatine raphae and rugae; firm when palpated; common variation is palatine torus
- soft palate: spongy in texture; firm but flexible; symmetrical elevation
- tonsils: large in childhood, small or absent in adults
- uvula: at midline