public plans or courses of action that concern internal issues of national importance, such as poverty, crime, and environment.
1. agenda building.
2. policy formulation.
3. policy adoption.
4. policy implementation.
5. policy evaluation.
The issue must get on the agenda. In other words, Congress must become aware that an issue requires Congressional action. Agenda building may occur as the result of a crisis, technological change, or mass media campaigns, as well as through the efforts of strong political personalities and effective lobbying groups.
Various policy proposals are discussed among government officials and the public. Such discussions may take place in the printed media, on television, and in the halls of Congress. Congress holds hearings, the president voices the administration's views, and the topic may even become a campaign issue.
Involves choosing a specific policy from among the proposals that have been discussed.
Involves the implementation of the policy alternative chosen by Congress. Government action must be implemented by the bureaucrats, the courts, police, and individual citizens.
Groups inside and outside the government conducts studies to determine what actually happens after a policy has been in place for a given period of time. Based on this feedback and the perceived success or failure of the policy, a new round of policy-making initiatives will be undertaken to improve on the effort.
A joint state--federal program that provides medical care to the poor (including indigent elderly persons in nursing homes). The program is funded out of general government revenues.
TANF (TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE TO NEEDY FAMILIES)
A state-administered program in which grants from the national government are used to provide welfare benefits.
Replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program.
SSI (SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME)
A federal program established to provide assistance to elderly persons and persons with disabilities.
EITC (EARNED-INCOME TAX CREDIT)
A government program that helps low-income workers by giving back part or all of their Social Security takes.
Two or more successive quarters in which the economy shrinks instead of grows.
A sustained rise in the general price level of goods and services.
An arbitrary level of unemployment that corresponds to "normal" friction in the labor market.
WHAT KIND OF SUPPORT DID THE GREAT DEPRESSION LEAD TO?
The crisis had many political consequences, among which was the abandonment of classic economic liberal approaches, which Roosevelt replaced in the U.S. with Keynesian policies.
WHAT DID JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES BELIEVED IN?
Believed that government intervention was needed in the existing economy, in part because after falling into a recession or depression, a modern economy may become trapped in an ongoing state of less than full employment.
He believed that the forces of supply and demand operated too slowly on their own in such a serious recession. Unemployment meant people had less to spend, and because they could not buy things, more businesses failed, creating additional unemployment. It was a vicious cycle. Keynes's idea was simple: in such circumstances, the government should step in and undertake the spending that is needed to return the economy to a more normal state.
The federal government's use of taxation and spending policies to affect overall business activity.
WHICH PRESIDENT OPENLY ADOPTED THE KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS?
Kennedy was the first American president to explicitly adopt Keynesian economics.
GDP (GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT)
The dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a one-year period.
WHICH PRESIDENT OF RECENT TIMES RAN BUDGETS SURPLUS?
A nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them.
Process by which states carry on political relations with each other; settling conflicts among nations by peaceful means.
Assistance to other nations in the form of grants, loans, or credits to buy the assisting nation's product.
Taxes on imports.
NSC (NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL)
Acts as an advisory body to the president, but it has increasingly become a rival to the State Department in influencing the foreign policy process.
Philosophy that sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and to agree on moral standards for conducts.
A philosophy that sees each nation acting principally in its own interest.
WHAT AGENCY IS THE MOST INVOLVED WITH FOREIGN POLICY?
Department of Defense.
WHICH 3 COUNTRIES DID GEORGE BUSH NAMED "THE AXIS OF EVIL"?
TWO NATIONS THAT THE U.S. FEAR THEY'RE ON THE VERGE OF GETTING NUCLEAR WEAPONS?
MONROE DOCTRINE IS AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT TIME OF POLICY?
WHICH COUNTRY LED RUSIA TO THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM?
Policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized U.S. foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800s.
Due to Monroe Doctrine.
WHAT RESULTED FROM THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR?
Winning the war gave the United States possession of:
The ideological, political, and economic confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union following World War II.
GOALS OF AL QAEDA TERRORISM NETWORK?
The leaders of the network, including Osama bin Laden, were angered by the presence of U.S. troops on the soil of Saudi Arabia, which they regard as sacred.
They also saw the United States as the primary defender of Israel against the Palestinians and as a defender of the royal family that governs Saudi Arabia.
The attacks were intended to so frighten and demoralize the American people that they would convince their leaders to withdraw American troops from the Middle East.
A U.S. diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to contain communist power within its existing boundaries.
WHO SUPPORTS THE INSURGENCY IN IRAQ?
Article II, Section 2.
Designates the president as "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States".
PRODUCT THAT HAS PUT CHINA AS NUMBER ONE PRODUCER WORLDWIDE
The practice of sending experts in such areas as agriculture, engineering, or business to aid other nations.
French word meaning a relaxation of tensions.
The term characterized U.S.--Soviet relations as they developed under President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.
Policy statement made by President James Monroe in 1823.
States three principles:
1. European nations should not establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
2. European nations should not intervene in the affairs of independent nations of the Western Hemisphere.
3. The United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations.
FOREIGN POLICIES TECHNIQUES
INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX
Levied on the total income of the individual (with some deductions permitted).
It is often collected on a pay-as-you-earn basis, with small corrections made soon after the end of the tax year. These corrections take one of two forms: payments to the government, for taxpayers who have not paid enough during the tax year; and tax refunds from the government for those who have overpaid. Income tax systems will often have deductions available that lessen the total tax liability by reducing total taxable income. They may allow losses from one type of income to be counted against another.
Minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living in a given country.
POLICY-MAKING PROCESS EXAMPLE.
defining the problem: medicare reform bill.
agenda building: AARP, George W. Bush, Congress.
republicans worried about socialism. republicans then advocate for a degree of privatization. democrats opposed privatization because they thought it would jeopardize the essence of Medicare. republicans proposed measures o benefit the insurance and pharmaceutical industries. the republican plan came up with the "doughnut hole" in which out-of-pocket drug expenses would assure that people with a bit more money will be able to pay some of their medicines and still have coverture for more expensive bills.
republican proposals were adopted, and the bill was passed. AARP endorsed the bill, which guaranteed its success. some democrats broke with their party to support the bill.
series of drug discount cards, sponsored by the government in cooperation with various insurance companies, which would provide some saving on prescriptions drugs right away.
much of the initial feedback was negative because of the multiplicity of plans and confusion over which drugs would be covered. as the program was fully implemented changes and improvements were made. more changes took place after the democrats gained control of congress in 06. overall, the program is very popular with senior citizens.