549 Chapter 7

  1. What are some potential sources of error that can cloud clinical judgment?
    (1) type of feedback provided by examiner

    (2) working relationship of examiner/examinee

    (3) format in which test is administered

    (4) state of the examinee
  2. What does the research indicate with regard to providing examinees feedback related to their test performance? (e.g., positive vs.negative feedback)
    • Performance feedback can affect results in either direction
    • Inconsistent feedback = threat to reliability/validity of test scores
    • Rewarding responses
    • -increase in examinee motivation, performance
    • -any verbal/nonverbal indication that examinee is performing well
    • •e.g., “good,” “you’re really smart,” nodding approval
    • -Positive feedback can be detrimental when no right/wrong answer exists (interviews, attitudinal surveys)
    • -Examiner responses shown to affect examinee’s responses
    • Negative responses
    • Any verbal/nonverbal indication that the examinee is not performing well
    • e.g., discouragement, decrease in performance, shaking of head, smirking, heavy sighing, or any verbal response indicative of an incorrect answer

    • Research has shown:
    • –incentives help to improve performance on IQ measures
    • –effects of verbal praise about as strong as money, candy
    • •esp. for younger children
    • –children of minority respond better when feedback is
    • “culturally relevant”
    • -examinees increasingly endorsed bogus symptoms with approval from examiner
    • “Are your intestines too long?” /“Do the ends of your hair itch?”
  3. Is there any kind of feedback that can be provided to an examinee during a test administration? If so, what kind(s)
    • Proper test administration protocol:
    • (1) no performance related feedback
    • (2) deflect examinee questions
    • (3) follow all standardization guidelines outlined in test manual
  4. Why is it important to establish a comfortable working relationship with an examinee? What are some of the consequences of failing to do so?
    • In order to obtain examinee’s “maximum”(best) or “typical”(most representative ) results
    • •Comfortable working relationship is crucial to obtaining accurate test results
    • •Testing environment should be as comfortable, non-threatening as possible (examiner’s behavior is critical here)
    • •Research findings:
    • –children score higher on IQ measures under “enhanced” rapport conditions
    • –score lower under “disapproving” or neutral examiner conditions
  5. Other considerations for establishing rapport.
    • •Test scores higher when examiner is “familiar face”
    • •Attitudinal surveys –examinee may give response he/she perceives examiner expects
    • •No conclusive data to suggest race of examiner impacts test results
  6. Suggestions for establishing rapport
    • •(1)Provide advanced notice to examinee–especially younger children
    • •(2)explain reason(s) for testing–use age appropriate language for children
    • •(3)start with easy questions, items, tasks–allow sense of confidence to build
  7. What are expectancy effects? Why may it be important to be aware of them?
    • Results may be affected by what examiner expects to find (a.k.a. “Rosenthal effects”)
    • –i.e., examiner has preconceived notions as to outcome
    • –acts in manner to confirm expectations

    • Important b/c can be influential in scoring of tests
    • –e.g., being told a student is “smart” by his/her teacher
    • –giving examinee “benefit of the doubt” because he/she is pleasant
    • –penalizing examinee because he/she misbehaves
  8. Test administration considerations-Other factors that may influence test results:
    • (1) expectancy effects
    • (2) language of test taker (or other potential communication barrier)
    • •# of ESL students in U.S. increasing dramatically
    • –e.g., verbally loaded intelligence measure
    • –appropriate for ESL student?
    • (3) level of training, experience of examiner
    • •Level of training examiner receives depends on type of measure used
    • •Measures of cognitive ability (IQ) – no set protocol as to what is acceptable level of training–at discretion of individual training programs–typically administered by licensed psychologists and school psychologists
    • (4) computer-assisted administration
    • •Test items presented on computer terminal. Responses automatically recorded.
    • •Advantages: standardization ensured,precisely timed responses,,examiner bias controlled
    • (5) test format
    • (6) Hearing (or visually) impaired students
    • –beware of verbally loaded measures
    • –visual-spatial tasks for VI
  9. Research findings on level of training, experience of examiner
    • –early trainees make numerous scoring and other types of errors
    • –little improvement made over 1st five administrations
    • •i.e., # of errors remains stable
    • –error rate decreases after only 10 administrations of same test
  10. Define Test Format & it's Research Findings
    Manner in which test is administered can affect test results

    • •Research findings:
    • –more information disclosed in self-report format vs. live interview
    • –will disclose even more when confidentiality of responses is ensured
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549 Chapter 7
549 Chapter 7