Week 8

  1. rounded, linear leaf w/ white stripes on underside
    round leaf bases
    cones sit upright on branches
    Image Upload 1Image Upload 2
    • Abies sp
    • Pinaceae; true fir
    • *cone: flat scales
    • wood used for lumber, pulp, crates.
    • xmas trees
  2. opp. ovate, crenate leaves w/ decurrent base
    large purple drupe clusters at nodes
    Image Upload 3Image Upload 4Image Upload 5American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) flowersAmerican Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana)
    • Callicarpa americana (of America)
    • Verbenaceae; beautyberry
    • Fruit: lavender drupe-like
    • songbirds, mice, armadillo, etc
  3. alt. simple, eliptical, entire margins
    leaf undersides and twigs have silvery scales
    Autumn-Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata var. parvifolia) flowersImage Upload 6Image Upload 7
    • Elaeagnus umbellata (has umbels)
    • Elaeagnaceae; elaeagnus
    • Fruit: drupe
    • native to China, Korea, Japan
    • Invasive; introduced as wildlife food plant
    • roots fix N, fruit eaten by humans
  4. large thorns on trunk
    long black shiny twisted legume
    pinnate-bipinnately compound w/ small leaflets
    yellow in fall, entire margin
    flaky bark w/ deep ridges Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) barkHoneylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos)Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) bark
    • Gleditsia triacanthos (3-branched, i.e. thorns)
    • Leguminosae; honeylocust (not a true locust)
    • *Fruit: legume
    • planted by settlers for sugary legumes, used in making beer. N-fixing nodules have never been found
    • fruit and seeds eaten by wildlife.
    • landscaping
  5. alt. simple, crenate margins, asymmetric leaf base
    late flowering
    Image Upload 8Image Upload 9American Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana) fruitAmerican Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaves
    • Hamamelis virginiana (of VA)
    • Hamamelidaceae (Witch Hazel); witch-hazel
    • *Fruit: capsule (exploding)
    • inner bark and leaves boiled for salve to treat wounds
  6. small, dainty shrub
    tiny leaflets, tiny pods, trifoliate leaves
    Lespedeza cuneata inflorescenceImage Upload 10Image Upload 11Lespedeza cuneata leaf
    • Lespedeza cuneata (wedge-shaped. i.e. leaf base)
    • Leguminosae; lespedeza
    • Fruite: legume
    • introduced from Asia
    • planted along roadsides and as quail food
  7. yellow-brown 2-3" cone, jagged cone scale margin
    bracts always shorter than scales Image Upload 12Image Upload 13Image Upload 14
    • Picea engelmannii (George Engelman - conifer expert)
    • Pinaceae; Engelmann spruce
    • *Cone: flat scale
    • bracts always shorter than scale
    • principal spruce of Rocky Mountains
    • wood very strong
    • pulp, dimension lumber, doors, musical instruments
  8. scaly, flaky bark retains branches
    needles twisted, in bundles of 2
    slightly more delicate than VA pine
    purple stripe on scaleImage Upload 15
    Image Upload 16Image Upload 17
    • Pinus clausa (closed... i.e. serotinous cones)
    • Pinaceae; sand pine
    • *Cone: flat scales
    • Found only in FLA
    • pulpwood and xmas trees
  9. deep dark ridged bark
    soft thin needles in 2s
    smooth twig
    cone has flexible scales
    Image Upload 18Image Upload 19
    • Pinus glabra (smooth. i.e. twigs)
    • Pinaceae; spruce pine
    • *Cone: flat scales
    • hard pine
    • xmas trees
  10. reddish brown cone on stalk, shinier than loblolly (which has no stalk)
    needles slightly longer, bushier, stouter, thicker than loblolly. also sometimes found in 2s, not just 3s.Image Upload 20Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii)Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) cone
    Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii)
    • Pinus elliottii var. elliottii
    • Pinaceae; slash pine
    • *Cone: flat scales
    • Not native to NC, mostly GA and FL, where it replaces loblolly, formerly used for naval stores
    • Pinus elliottii var. densa
    • South Florida slash pine: occurs naturally in south FL and the Keys. has gras stage and heavier wood

  11. fat cone w/ hooked prickles
    needles in 2s
    Image Upload 21Image Upload 22
    • Pinus pungens (prickly)
    • Pinaceae; Table-mountain pine
    • *Cone: flat scales
    • found in Appalachians
  12. soft needle/leaves
    3-4" cone w/ 3-pointed bract longer than scale
    long, sharp, pointed buds
    Image Upload 23Image Upload 24
    • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Archibald Menzies)
    • Pinaceae; Douglas-fir
    • *Cone: flat scales
    • Major timber sp. of Pac. NW
    • pulp, lumber, plywood
    • spotted owl habitat!

    • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca
    • bluish foliage and reflexed cone bracts in Rocky Mountains
  13. alt. pinnately compound, never bipinnate
    spines paired at nodes
    Image Upload 25Image Upload 26Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) spines
    • Robinia pseudoacacia (false-acacia)
    • Leguminosae; black locust
    • *Fruit: legume
    • wood resistant to decay, shrinking and swelling
    • used for pins in cabin construction, fene posts, beams, mine timbers
    • foliage poisonous to livestock
    • used in mine spoil bank reclamation
  14. alt. linear leaves w/ white bands on bottom, evergreen
    leaves different lengths along shoot
    1" cone w/ wrinkled scales
    Image Upload 27Image Upload 28Image Upload 29Image Upload 30
    • Sequoia sempervirens (evergreen)
    • Cupressaceae; redwood
    • *Cone: peltate scale
    • wood decay resistant
    • hot tubs, siding
    • tallest tree
  15. tiny alt. leaves, drops entire branches
    fibrous barkBaldcypress (Taxodium distichum)Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)
    • Taxodium distichum var. distichum (2-ranked or spreading. i.e. leaves)
    • Cupressaceae; baldcypress
    • *Cone: peltate scales
    • wood very valuable, decay resistant
    • siding, bird houses, mulch
    • our most flood-tolerant tree
    • landscaping
  16. alt. almost round, accuminate tip
    shaggy bark
    waxy capsule w/ white seed.
    Chinese Tallowtree (Triadica sebifera) leavesImage Upload 31Image Upload 32Image Upload 33
    • Triadica sebifera
    • Euphorbiaceae (Spurge Family); tallowtree
    • *Fruit: capsule
    • native to China; very weedy further south
    • wax on seed coat used in candle making
  17. Found above 5800 ft
    Image Upload 34Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri)
    • Abies fraseri (John Fraser)
    • Pinaceae; Fraser fir
    • *Cone: flat scales, bracts exserted
    • heavily damaged by balsam woolly adelgid
  18. low elevation, Pacific Coast, NoCal to AK
    slightly larger cone than Engelman
    Image Upload 35
    • Picea sitchensis (of Sitka, AK)
    • Pinaceae; Sitka spruce
    • *Cone: flat scales
    • found in narrow belt along Pacific coast from NoCal to AK
Card Set
Week 8
Schenck Forest Arboretum: exotic and native species