Chapter 11

  1. spiral bacteria, axial filament.
    Most are free-living
  2. Spirochetes

  3. syphilis. Sexually transmitted. No growth on any laboratory media.
  4. Treponema pallidum
  5. Relapsing fever. Tick borne.
    Borrelia recurrentis
  6. Lyme disease. Tick borne. Headache, stiff neck, arthritis.
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  7. Flagellated, no axial filaments. Most are harmless.
    Aerobic/microaerophilic, motile, helical/vibrioid
  8. among most common causes of diarrheal illness in the US and other developed countries. May lead to septicemia. Acquired orally. Invades intestinal epithelia
    Campylobacter spp
  9. responsible for >85% of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
    Helicobacter pylori
  10. Inhabit soil, water, plants and animals (moist areas). Motile, many pigments,metabolically active (many enzymes) but may use few of the common nutrients and grow on anything. Extremely invasive and toxigenic in compromised patients (weakened ability to resist infectious agents)
    • Aerobic rods and cocci
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  11. Urinary tract infections (UTI), septicemia, abscesses, burns, wounds.
    Nosocomial infections
  12. Ubiquitous in warm, moist environments.
    Legionella spp.
  13. Legionellosis, Legionnaires disease (pneumonia-like). Many toxins. Spread by aerosols. Asymptomatic infections common in all age groups.
    Legionella pneumophila
  14. diplococci. Pathogenic species usually associated with leukocytes (neutrophils in particular).
    Neisseria spp.
  15. gonorrhea. No capsule. Pili on virulent forms. Highly toxic LPS
    Neisseria gonorrhoea
  16. found only in humans. Inhalation, pili attach, invasion to blood, fulminant infection,circulatory collapse, meningitis
    Neisseria meningitidis
  17. Obligate parasites of animals (incl. humans). Often found intracellularly (survives phagocytosis). Transmitted by ingestion or passage through skin or mucous membranes.
    Brucella spp.
  18. chronic, and involves many tissues. Endotoxin mediated.
    Undulant fever (Brucellosis)
  19. Whooping cough, infant immunizations have been very effective. Respiratory transmission. Pertussis toxin and other toxins. Relatively non-invasive.
    Bordetella pertussis
  20. Tularemia (ulcers, necrotic lesions, fever, malaise). Entry through abrasions following animal contact, insect bite, ingestion or inhalation. Highly infectious and toxic. Rabbits.
    Francisella tularensis
  21. natural habitat for most is intestinal tract.Some are normal flora and cause incidental disease; some are regularly pathogenic
    Enteric bacteria
  22. Common intestinal inhabitant. UTI's and food poisoning (traveler's diarrhea); spread by fecal contamination. LPS and many other toxins (heat stable and labile toxins). Most common normal flora, u get from humans.
    Escherichia coli
  23. Common in many animals. Transmitted to humans by oral route. Enteric (typhoid) fever, bacteremias, and enterocolitis. Invasive (gut to blood) and toxigenic. Poop on hand -> ingestion. Typhoid mary.
    Salmonella. Salmonellosis not as deadly as salmonella.
  24. Humans only. Shigellosis (dysentery) and traveler's diarrhea. LPS, exotoxins, and enterotoxins (interfere with nutrient uptake). Appearance in blood is rare.
  25. Normal flora of gut flora. Diseases similar to E. coli, and pediatric septicemia, pneumonias in the immunocompromised, esp. chronic alcoholism
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
  26. Normally free-living. Very opportunistic. Nosocomial infections- UTI's and respiratory tract infections (RTI)
    Serratia marcescens
  27. UTI's, wound infections, and infant diarrhea. Highly motile.
    Proteus spp.
  28. Many toxins. Multiply rapidly in blood and other tissues. Bubonic plague: Rats to Fleas to Humans. Pneumonic plague: Respiratory aerosols.
    Yersinia pestis
  29. common inhabitants of soil, water, & animals.
    Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes
  30. UTI and sepsis.
    Nosocomial infections
  31. curved rods (comma shapes). Among most common inhabitants of surface waters.
  32. cholera. Contaminated water, poor sanitation. Potent enterotoxin.
    Vibrio cholerae
  33. A halophile. Gastroenteritis from raw or poorly cooked fish and shellfish
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  34. primarily animal pathogens. Transmitted to humans by dog or cat bite.
  35. in humans, local lymphadenopathy, followed by widespread infection, septicemia and chronic respiratory infection. Toxigenic.
    Pasteurella multocida
  36. Non-encapsulated may be normal flora. Encapsulated is pathogenic. Spread by inhalation. Meningitis and earache in infants and children; laryngotracheitis. RTI in children and adults.
    Haemophilus influenza
  37. Normal intestinal flora. Peritonitis, following puncture wounds
  38. Normal oral flora. Dental abscesses
  39. reproduce only in host cells
    Obligate intracellular parasites
  40. Most are arthropod borne. Multiply in endothelial cells of many organs & cause necrosis
  41. epidemic typhus. Grows in cytoplasm
    Rickettsia prowazeckii
  42. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Grows in nucleus
    Rickettsia rickettsia
  43. Q fever. Inhalation. Influenza, pneumonia, hepatitis, encephalopathy.
    Coxiella burnetti
  44. Cannot synthesize ATP. Persistent parasites. Blindness, respiratory disease, venereal disease.
    Chlamydia spp.
  45. No cell wall. Very small. Often normal flora of mouth, gut and urogenital tract. Can be intracellular parasites. Atypical pneumonia and urethritis, esp. in compromised host, post-partum disease. Toxigenic.
    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp.
Card Set
Chapter 11
Gram Negative Bacteria