What are the differences between the 1992 food pyramid, and the 2005 food pyramid?
Increase in good fats, decrease in bad fats, increase in servings of protein, dairy, vegetables, and fruits, breads need to be half whole grain, and exercise regularly!!
What are the three main things you need for digestion?
You need water and an enzyme.
What are the three common control mechanisms for digestion?
1. Local (autoregulation)
2. Nervous (rapidly acting)
3. Hormonal (slower acting/ reinforcing)
What are the GI tract organs?
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, galbladder, small intestine, pancreas, and large intestine.
What is the main function of the mouth?
Ingestion, salivary gland secretion, mucus and enzymes, enzymatic digestion, chewing and swallowing.
What are the main functions of the esophagus?
Rapid transit, mucus secretion.
What are the main functions of the stomach?
Mixing, mucus secretion, hydrochloric acid, enzymes, digests alcohol, protein and butter fat.
What are the main functions of the liver and galbladder?
Emulsificaiton, detergent action of bile and secretion.
What are the main functions of the pancreas?
Secretion! Mucus, NaHCO3, and enzymes, enzymatic digesiton: carbs, fat, protein.
What are the main functions of the small intestine?
Absorption! Secretes mucus and enzymes. Enzymatic digestion: carbs, fat, protein.
What are the main functions of the large intestine?
Dehydration! Secretiona and absorption, and storage, and peristalsis.
What are the gut secretions and what are their releasing sites?
1. Mucus releases into the GI lumen.
2. Enzymes release into GI lumen.
3. H2O, acids, bases release into GI lumen
4. Hormones release into the blood.
What are the exercise guidlines for healthy adults under the age of 65?
Moderately intense aerobic exercise 30 min/day, 5 day/week. OR vigorously intense aerobic exercise 20 min/day, 3 day/week. AND 8-10 strength training exercises 8-12 repetitions of each exercise, 2 day/week.
What are the four chambers of the heart?
Right atria, right ventricle, left atria, left ventricle.
What is the difference between pulmonary and systemic?
Blood in the pulmonary circuit has been oxygenated, and blood in the systemic circuit has gone through the body and is considered used.
Describe the path a red blood cell would make through the heart.
Blood from the body would travel into the heart from the superior vena cava (head) and inferior vena cava (body) into the right atrium, then through the right ventricle and then into the pulmonary artery and pulmonary circuit where the blood gets oxygenized. From the lungs, the freshly oxygenated blood moves through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium, then through the left ventricle, and then through the aorta to the rest of the body.
What is VAVA?
Describes the blood flow direction which is veins, artia, ventricles, then arteries.
Name the four valves and their locations.
1. Pulmonary valve: between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery.
2. Right AV valve: between right atrium and right ventricle.
3. Left AV valve: between left atrium and left ventricle.
4. Aortic valve: between the left ventricle and the aorta.
*Pulmonary valve and aortic valve are the "semi-lunar valves."
What is the heart's electrical highway and which part is known as the "pace-maker?"
Starts in the Sinoatrial (SA) Node, which is known as the pace-maker, then goes to the Atrioventricular (AV) Node, then into the Bundle of His, then into the Purkinje fibers.
What are the 6 abreviations for the heart diseases and what do they stand for?
CVD: Cardiovascular disease
AMI: Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)
CVA: Cerebro vascular accident (stroke)
HTN: Hypertention (high blood pressure)
PVD: periferal vascular disease
TIA: Transient ischemic attack (mini stroke)
Fatty deposits inside aterial walls, under endothelium.
What are the two types of cholesterol?
HDL: High-density lipoprotein, good.
LDL: Low-density lipoprotein, bad.
What are the three points of the treatment triad?
Dietary modification, exercise, and drugs/surgery (last resort).
Inflamation of a vein.
What are the four layers of the heart tissue from outermost to innermost?
Pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, endocardium.
What is the normal range for beats per minute? And what is it called when the BPM gets too slow? Too fast?
Normal range is between 60 and 100. Below 60 is bradycardia, above 100 is tachycardia.