Define Unilineal Evolution
The assertion that human societies evolved through one line of evolution. From primitive to complex.
Lewis Henry Morgan
Wrote the first Ethnography "The league of the Iriquois".
The ignored relation between the Father and the care of the children. Morgan found this within the Iroquois.
Define System of Consanguinity
Morgans formulation of the distinction between classifictory and descriptive systems of kinship.
Ancient society is categorized into what three aspects.
- 1. Savagery
- 2. Barbarism
- 3. Civilization
Cultures must evolve through these.
Edward Burnett Tylor
First person to define culture and make Anthropology a science.
Define Social Evolution
That societies evolve from Primitive to Complex.
Define what Survivals are.
Evidence of cultural evolutionary past.
ex. Superstitions, etc.
Evolution of Religion as seen in Unilineal Evolutionism.
- Animism- Belief in existence of a soul
- Ancestor Worship- worship of departed family.
- Polytheism- Many gods
- Monotheism- One god.
Researched folklore and focused on the notions of cause and effect. Defined the evolution of rationality, and found a pattern in magic. Wrote the Golden bough, A monumental study in comparative folklore, magic and religion, The Golden Bough shows parallels between the rites and beliefs, superstitions and taboos of early cultures and those of Christianity. It had a great impact on psychology and literature and remains an early classic anthropological resource.
Problems with Unilineal Evolution
Overrun with Ethnocentrism, is based on scant amount of ethnographic info., and based on the assertion that things changed everywhere in the world in the same way.
- Sought to explain the similarities among cultures and the mechanism for cultural change.
- Ex. Pyramids of Egypt vs. Central America-Diffused over??
Primeval culture complexes were identified, and their ideas then spread with modifications around the globe. Because of the Kultelkreis movement, anthropology died out in this country.
Problems with Diffusionism
- -Ignored the relevance of the environmental conditions.
- -Racist undertones particularly in German versions.
Functionalists seek to describe the different parts of a society and their relationship through the organic analogy. The organic analogy compared the different parts of a society to the organs of a living organism. The organism was able to live, reproduce and function through the organized system of its several parts and organs. Like a biological organism, a society was able to maintain its essential processes through the way that the different parts interacted together
- Wrote first modern ethnography. Realized importance of participant observation. Created method of:
- -Learn language
- -Prolonged fieldwork
According to Malinowski, culture has a function, what is it?
It's function is it works to satisfy the basic need of the individual
Malinowskis 7 Basic Needs:
- Need ResponseMetabolism Commissariat
- Reproduction Kinship
- Safety Protection
- Movement Activities
- Health Hygiene
- Bodily Comforts Shelter
- Growth Training
Define Structural Functionalism
Belief that culture functions to support the social structures of society
Father of American Anthropology.
That race, language, and culture are independent aspects of the human condition.
- Consumer oriented society
- Secret societies
- -Hamatra Dancers (cannibals)
- -Fool Society
- -Noble Society
Forgiveness=Height of nobility
That anthropology must look for the key features that structure the human mind.
Not to be confused with structural functionalism.
Claude Levi Strauss
- Discovered the usage of Tropes, a figure of speech used to extend the categories for thinking.
- Binary oppositions: a pair of terms or concepts that are theoretical opposites.
Multi Lineal Evolutionism
That human societies evolved in a variety of ways, depending on the environment in which you find them
Neo-Evolutionist that looked at culture as a general human phenomenon, and that social evolution should be viewed in terms of technological advancement.
Multi Lineal evolutionist.
Cultural Ecology: views the impact of the environment as the mechanism of the varieties of cultural diversity.
- Culture cores: Societies with similar subsistence strategies live in similar environments.
Looks to the fundamental causes of cultural phenomenon
- Universal Pattern:
- -mode of production
- -mode of reproduction
- -social organization
- -political organization
That anthropology doesn't need to be and can't be a science. The goal is to read and translate cultural understanding.
- -Thick description
- -Cultures are texts
- -Cultural particularism
-Ritual and community
- Communities and Ritual:
- -rites of passage have 3 stages
Stuctural Constructivism: recognizes the reality of binary oppositions as a social and political reality, not a universal pattern in the human mind.
Rules you are aware of following.
- Recognition of biases and the production of Ethnographic knowledge.
- Productive-the more sounds we use, the more meaning we gain
- Arbitrary-is opinionated
- Displacement-humans are able to talk about the not here and the not happening.
Words that can be shown to have a common chronology.
The study of the sounds of speech
The study of meaning.
The smallest part of an utterance that has a definite meaning
Rules of how to put ideas together to make coherent statements
Investigation of sounds and language as they are being used in a group of people.
The real social unit within which speakers share a way of speaking.