History Exam #2

  1. absolutism
    political philosophy that stressed the divine right theory of kingship
  2. Adam Smith
    Scottish philospher who held that society would prosper when individuals pursued their own economic interest (ethical egoism and laissez-faire capitalism)- pursue own self interest in marketplace
  3. Constitutionalism
    movement in England in the 17th centry that placed power in Parliament's hand as part of a constitutional monarchy that an increasingly limited the power of monarch; Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
  4. Deism
    An Enlightment view that accepted the existence of a god but denied the super natural aspect of Christianity; in deism, the universe was an orderly realm maintained by rational and natural laws
  5. Divine Rights of Kings
    absolute monarchies (kings) derived their authority from God and served as "God's lieutenants upon earth"
  6. Geocentrism
    Earth centered universe; motionless Earth; 9 spheres surrounding Earth
  7. Heliocentrism
    astronomical theory that the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun and that the Sun is stationary and at the center of the universe.
  8. Johannes Kepler
    demonstrated that plantary orbits are elliptical, not circular
  9. John Locke
    sought the natural lawas of politics "life, liberty, and property" - people have the rights to own property (natural rights ethics)
  10. Joint-stock companies
    early forerunner of the modern corporation; individuals who invested in a trading or exploring venture could make huge profits while limiting their task
  11. The 'Putting-Out System'
    capitalist entrepreneurs seeking profits by the divered unfinished materials such as raw wool to rural householders. Men and women work with unfinished materal in final product. The entrepreneur pick up finished goods, pay worker, sell to market. Early European organization of efficient production
  12. Nicolaus Copernicus
    argued (again church) that the sun rather than the Earth stood at the center of universe. Planets and Earth revolved around the sun
  13. Voltaire
    French writer who embodied the spirit of the eighteenth century Enlightenment
  14. Luddites
    Early nineteenth-century artisans who were opposed to new machinery and industrailization
  15. James Watt
    invented steam engine (steam to force wheel to turn) in 1765. He was a instrument maker at University of Galasgow in Scotland.
  16. George Stephenson
    1815 Englishman built the first steam-powered locomotive (push and pull of the wheel)
  17. Eli Whitney
    American inventor important contribution to evolving facotry system best remembered from cotton gin invenstion. Her techique using machine tools to produce interchangeable parts in making of firearms
  18. Karl Marx
    Nineteenth century socialist, German theorist Marx and Engels bellieved divided people to class will solve social problems to capitalist (owners) and proietariat (wage workers)
  19. Trade Unions
    Struggle to improve worker' lives by seeking higher wages and better working conditions for their members - improved lives of working people
  20. Silver
    most abundant mineral that was mined by the Spanish in the Americas
  21. Sugar
    In Brazil, sugar was the main product for export
  22. Viceroys
    the representatives of the government in Spain; audience were Courts established in the Americas to review Viceroy's performance
  23. Peninsulares
    migrants to the Americas who were born in Europe (1)
  24. Creoles
    Children born in the America's of Spanish/Portugese parents (2)
  25. Zamabos
    In Brazil, children of African (slaves) and Amerindians
  26. Mestizos
    Children of Portuguese/Spanish and Amerindian parents (3)
  27. Mulattos
    In Brazil, children of Portugese and African parents
  28. Ancien remime
    the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
  29. Civil Code of 1804
    Napoleon promulgated the Civil code, a revised body of the civil law helped stabilized French society - stated political and legal equality of a all adult men in educatin and employment because of talent, not birth and class
  30. Civil War
    the power between different groups who want to rule. Struggle for power gets intense > civil war
  31. Coup d'etat
    small group of people, often involving sections of the military - fundamental social and economic features of society are left interact
  32. rebellion
    massive social unheavals which aim to secure a few specific reforms to improve situatins which have become unacceptable - usually force to return to a time when life was better
  33. Seven Years' War
    British and French forces battled each other in Europe and India as well as North America. Victory of Seven Years' War ensured that Britain would dominate global trade and that British North America would prosper
  34. Stamp Act
    Publication and legal documents taxed after Seven Years' War, British tax North American colonies taxes
  35. Continental Congress (1774)
    American colonist which organized a congress to urge against British taxation which urged the Declaration of Independence
  36. Mazimilien Robespierre
    dominated the Committee of Public Safety because him and the Jacobin party passionately believed that France needed complete restructuring
  37. Louis XVI and Marine Antoinette
    the Convention (a new legislative body which abolished the monarchy and proclaim France a republic) rooted to behead THEM in 1793 which Conventin found them guilty of treason of the priniples of the Revolution
  38. Francisco Pizarro
    Lead Spanish expedition to Peru - expedition for gold and silver
  39. Cajanarca
    The place which held the battle between Pizarro and Atahualpa
  40. Atahualpa
    Ican ruler
  41. Treaty of Tordesillas
    The Treaty of Tordesillas was agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World.
  42. Trade Triangle
    trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americans that featured finished products from Europe, slaves from Africa, and American priducts bound for Europe
  43. Olaudah Equiano
    The abolitionist former slave as deplicted in the first editin of his autobiography detailing his experience as a slace and a freeman
  44. Middle Passage
    captured slaved underwent crapmped and bad conditioned decks
  45. Gullah
    Creole language
  46. Capoeira
    Brazillian martial art
  47. Trickster tales
    African stories about slaves tricking the masters
Card Set
History Exam #2