Lecture Exam 3 BLOOD

  1. What type of tissue is
    • Blood is a specialized connective tissue. Blood cells are suspended in a
    • fluid matrix.
  2. What are the 4 basic funtions of blood?
    • 1.
    • Transport dissolved gases,
    • nutrients, hormones and metabolic wastes.

    • 2.
    • The restriction of fluid losses at
    • injury sites.

    • 3.
    • Defense against toxins and
    • pathogens.

    • 4.
    • The stabilization of body
    • temperature.
  3. What is plasma?
    The yellow-colored liquid component of blood, in which blood cells are suspended.
  4. What are the components of plasma?
    90% water, molectules including Na+ and CI-, hormones, vitamins, and three types of proteins.
  5. How is it different from intersticial fluid (extracellular
    • Difference between plasma and interstitial fluids are:
    • 1. Different levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • 2. Different amounts and types of dissolved proteins (plasma proteins do not pass through capillary walls).
  6. How is plasma and interstitial fluid (extracellular matrix) similar?
    Like interstitial fluid, plasma is an extracellular fluid. Water, ions and small solutes are continually exchanged between the plasma and interstitial fluid across the walls of capillaries.
  7. What types of proteins are found in plasma?
    • Three main classes of plasma proteins:
    • 1. Albumins 60% transport substances such as fatty acids, thryoid hormones and steroid hormones.
    • 2. Globulins 35% Antibodies, transport globulins
    • 3. Fibrinogen 4% Form clots by producing long insoluble strands of fibrin.
  8. What is the hematocrit?
    • Hematocrit is the percentage of red blood cells in a whole blood sample.
    • These three things equal a hematocrit percentage. About 48% for men and 38% for women.
  9. What is hematopoiesis (or
    hemopoiesis) ?
    The process of blood cell production. Occurs in Red Marrow.
  10. Name the two two main stem cells that originate from the blood stem cell.
    Myeloid Stem Cell and Lymphoid Stem Cell.
  11. What are the functions of a
    red blood cells?
    • Carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues around your body.
    • Getting waste carbon dioxide from your tissues to your lungs, where it can be breathed out.
  12. How many red blood cells do
    we have per mm3?
    • Male - 5 million / mm3
    • Females are slightly lower.
  13. How the structure of a red
    blood cell is related to the function?
    • 1. Concave disc shape gives each RBC a high surface to volume ratio, to quickly absorb and release oxygen.
    • 2. Enables RBC's to form stacks, which smoothes the flow through narrow blood vessels.
    • 3. Enables RBC's to bend and flex when enetering small capillaries and branches.
  14. What are the principal steps
    in red blood cell maturation?
    • 1. Hemocytoblasts, stem cells in bone marrow divide to produce myeloid stem cells (to become RBC's) and lymphoid stem cells. (to become lymphocytes).
    • 2. Myeloid stem cells differentiate into proerythroblasts.
    • 3. Proerythroblasts mature in several stages, losing organelles and reducing in size to become a reticulocyte.
    • 4. Reticulocytes are released into the blood stream and complete maturation.
    • Hemocytoblasts ->Myeloid / Lymphoid Stem Cells ->Proerythroblasts -> Reticulocytes ->
  15. How long are red blood
    cells circulating?
    • 120 Days for the life of a RBC
    • 2 million are replaced per second.
  16. Which organs are removing the old
    blood cells?
    The Spleen and liver.
  17. How many leukocytes do we
    have per mm3 of blood?
    5,000 to 10,000 per mm3 of blood.
  18. Name 5 major types of WBC's
    • 1. Neutrophils
    • 2. Eosinophils
    • 3. Basophils
    • 4. Monocytes
    • 5. Lymphocytes
  19. Name 4 characteristics of circulating WBC's
    • 1. All can migrate out of the bloodstream
    • 2. All are capable of amoeboid movement
    • 3. All are attracted to specific chemical stimuli
    • 4. Some are capable of phagocytosis (neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes).
  20. Neutrophils
    • 50-70% of all WBC's
    • Their cytoplasm is packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes and bacteria killing compounds. The breakdown of used neutrophils in an infected wound forms pus.
  21. Eosinophils
    • 2-4% of all WBC's
    • Their mode of attack is the excrete toxic compounds such as nitric oxide and cytotoxic enzymes, which are effective against parasites that are too large to engulf. Also Eosinophils are sensitive to allergenad and increase during allergic reactions. They release enzymes that counteract the inflammatory effects of neutrophils and mast cells.
  22. Basophils
    • <1% of WBC's
    • Small; accumulate in damaged tissue and release histamine, which dialates blood vessels and heparins, which prevents blood clotting.
  23. Monocytes
    • 2-8% of WBC's
    • Large; they become macrophages to engulf large particles and pathogens.
  24. Lymphocytes
    • 20-30% of WBC's
    • Migrate in and out of the blood. Spend most of their time in connective tissues and lymphatic organs.
    • T-Cells - attack foreign cells directly.
    • B-Cells differentiate into plasma cells which synthesize antibodies
    • NK natural killer cells - detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells, such as cancer.
  25. Where are white blood cells
    • All WBC's except monocutes develop fully in the bone marrow. (Monocytes develop into macrophages in peripheral tissues).
    • All WBC's originate from hemoblasts:
    • Hemoblasts -> Myeloid Stem Cells -> Progenitor Cells -> All other WBC's
    • Hemoblasts -> Lymphoid Stem Cells -> Lymphocytes
  26. What are platelets and their 3 main functions?
    • Platelets are cell fragments involved in the clotting system.
    • 1. Release of chemicals inportant to the clotting process
    • 2. Formation of a temporary patch in the walls of damaged blood vessels
    • 3. Active tissue contraction after clot formation has occurred.
  27. How are platelets formed?
    Thrombocytopoiesis occurs in bone marrow. Giant cells called megakaryocytes manufacture platelets by shedding cytoplasm packets until they are used up. The process is controlled by thrombopoietin (TPO).
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Lecture Exam 3 BLOOD
Anatomy Lecture exam 3 BLOOD