411 Ch 7

  1. Active Metabolism
    The metabolic acidity that generates additional heat as a by prodouct of the additional energy requirements of muscular work
  2. eAllen's Rule
    A tenet that, widely distributed homeothermic species, population in cold climates will tend to have shorter extremeties than those in mild climates.
  3. Apocrince Sweat Glands:
    Glands in mammals that areas associated with hair follicles and secrete a fluid in lipids and proteins.
  4. Basal Metablism
    The metabolic activity that is generated by animals during complete rest
  5. Bergmann's Rule
    A tenet that, in a widely distributed, homeothermic species, populations in colder enfironments will tend to be bigger than those in mild climates.
  6. Cold induced vasodilator
    Dilation of peripheral blood vessels during exposure to cold
  7. Conduction
    The transfer of heat between two solid objects in physical contact
  8. Convection:
    The transfer of heat between two sold objects in physical contact
  9. Countercurrent heat exchange
    A heat exchange between arteries and veins that warms venous blood that has cooled peripheral areas
  10. Evaporation:
    The conversion of a liquid to a gas, a process that requires energy and thus a loss of heat from the surrounding area.
  11. Habitation
    The process of becoming less reactive to any particular stimulus or stress.
  12. Isolative adaptation
    An adaptation to cold or heat stress involving body size, form, and compoosition as well as regulation of blood flow.
  13. Metabolic adaptation
    An adaptation to cold or stress involving basal metabolsim as well as metabolic heat generation from muscular activity.
  14. Non Shivering thermogenesis
    An adaptation occuring in some mammals, and possibly human, in which the hormone norepinephrine causes a general increase in the basal metabolism rate due to dchanges in lipid metabolism.
  15. Radiation
    The exchange of electromagnetic energy between objects in range of each other
  16. Shivering
    Involuntary muscular activity that is induced by skin receptors that are activated by a lowering of skin temperature
  17. Thermoregulation
    The maintenance of a balance between heat gain and loss.
  18. Vasoconstriction
    The narrowing of superficial blood vessel, which reduces the rate heat loss from the body to the air.
  19. Vasodilation
    The expansion of superficial blood vessels, which increases the rate of heat loss sfrom the body to the air.
Card Set
411 Ch 7
Human Adaptation to Cold and Heat